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初中英语单词及词组分组辨析大汇总   

2009-12-29 11:31:04|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 初中英语单词及词组分组辨析大汇总

1. clothes, cloth, clothing

  clothes 统指各种衣服,谓语动词永远是复数,cloth 指布,为不可数名词 clothing 服装的总称,

  指一件衣服用 a piece of, an article of

  2. incident, accident

  incident 指小事件, accident 指不幸的事故 He was killed in the accident.

  3. amount, number

  amount 后接不可数名词,number 后接可数名词 a number of students

  4. family, house, home

  home 家,包括住处和家人,house 房子,住宅,family 家庭成员。My family is a happy one.

  5. sound, voice, noise

  sound 自然界各种各样的声音,voice 人的嗓音,noise 噪音 I hate the loud noise outside.

  6. photo, picture, drawing

  photo 用照相机拍摄的照片,picture 可指相片,图片,电影片,drawing 画的画

  Let's go and see a good picture.

  7. vocabulary, word

  vocabulary 词汇,一个人拥有的单词量,word 具体的单词 He has a large vocabulary.

  8. population, people

  population 人口,人数,people 具体的人 China has a large population.

  9. weather, climate

  weather 一天内具体的天气状况,climate 长期的气候状况 The climate here is not good for you.

  10. road, street, path, way

  road 具体的公路,马路,street 街道,path 小路,小径,way 道路,途径

  take this road; in the street, Show me the way to the museum.

  11. course, subject

  course 课程(可包括多门科目),subject 科目(具体的学科)a summer course

  12. custom, habit

  custom 传统风俗,习俗,也可指生活习惯,后接 to do,habit 生活习惯,习惯成自然,后接 of doing.

  I've got the habit of drinking a lot.

  13. cause, reason

  cause 指造成某一事实或现象的直接原因,后接 of sth./doing sth,reason 用来解释某种现象或

  结果的理由,后接 for sth./doing sth. the reason for being late

  14. exercise, exercises, practice

  exercise 运动,锻炼(不可数),exercises 练习(可数),practice(反复做的)练习。

  Practice makes perfect.

  15. class, lesson

  作“课”解时,两者可以替换。指课文用 lesson. 指班级或全体学生用 class. Lesson 6; Class 5

16. speech, talk, lecture

  speech 指在公共场所所做的经过准备的较正式的演说,talk 日常生活中的一般的谈话,讲话,lecture

  学术性的演讲,讲课 a series of lecture on …

  17. officer, official

  officer 部队的军官,official 政府官员 an army officer

  18. work, job

  二者均指工作。work 不可数,job 可数 a good job。

  19. couple, pair

  couple 主要指人或动物,pair 多指由两部分组成的东西 a pair of trousers

  20. country, nation, state, land

  country 侧重指版图,疆域,nation 指人民,国民,民族,state 侧重指政府,政体,land 国土,

  国家 The whole nation was sad at the news.

  21. cook, cooker

  cook 厨师,cooker 厨具 He is a good cook.

  22. damage, damages

  damage 不可数名词,损害,损失; damages 复数形式,赔偿金 $900 damages

  23. police, policeman

  police 警察的总称,后接复数谓语动词,policeman 指某个具体的警察 The police are questioning

  everyone in the house.

  24. problem, question

  problem 常和困难连系,前面的动词常为 think about, solve, raise,question 常和疑问连系,

  多和ask, answer 连用。

  25. man, a man

  man 人类,a man 一个男人 Man will conquer nature.

  26. chick, chicken

  二者均可指小鸡,chicken 还可以当鸡肉 The chicken is delicious.

  27. telegram, telegraph

  当电报解时,telegram 指具体的,telegraph 指抽象的 a telegram, by telegraph

  28. trip, journey, travel, voyage

  travel 是最常用的,trip 指短期的旅途,journey 指稍长的旅途,voyage 指海上航行 a three-day trip

  29. sport, game

  sport 多指户外的游戏或娱乐活动,如打球,游泳,打猎,赛马等;game 指决定胜负的游戏,通常有一套

  规则 His favorite sport is swimming.

  30. price, prize

  price 价格,prize 奖,奖品,奖金 win the first prize The price is high/low.

31. a number of, the number of

  a number of 许多,谓语动词用复数。the number of … 的数目,谓语动词用单数。The number of

  students is increasing.

  32. in front of, in the front of

  in front of 范围外的前面,in the front of 范围内的前面 In the front of the room sits a boy.

  33. of the day, of a day

  of the day 每一天的,当时的,当代的,of a day 暂时的,不长久的 a famous scientist of the day

  34. three of us, the three of us

  three of us 我们(不止三个)中的三个,the three of us 我们三个(就三个人)The three of us

  --- Tom, Jack and I went to the cinema.

  35. by bus, on the bus

  by bus 表手段,方式,不用冠词,on the bus 表范围 They went there by bus.

  36. for a moment, for the moment

  for a moment 片刻,一会儿,for the moment 暂时,一时 Thinking for a moment, he agreed.

  37. next year, the next year

  next year 明年,将来时间状语,the next year 第二年,过去将来时间状语

  He said he would go abroad the next year.

  38. more than a year, more than one year

  more than a year 一年多,more than one year 超过一年(两年或三年等)

  39. take advice, take the(one's) advice

  take advice 征求意见,take the advice 接受忠告 He refused to take the advice and failed again.

  40. take air, take the air

  take air 传播,走漏,take the air 到户外去,散步 We take the air every day.

  41. in a word, in words

  in a word 总之,一句话, in words 口头上 In a word, you are right.

  42. in place of, in the place of

  in place of 代替,in the place of 在…地方 A new building is built in the place of the old one.

  43. in secret, in the secret

  in secret 秘密地,暗自地,偷偷地,一般用作状语;in the secret 知道内情,知道秘密,

  一般用作表语 My mother was in the secret from the beginning.

  44. a girl, one girl

  a girl 可泛指所有女孩, one girl 一个女孩 Can one girl carry such a big box?

  45. take a chair, take the chair

  take a chair 相当于 sit down 坐下,take the chair 开始开会

46. go to sea, by sea, by the sea

  50. in charge of, in the charge of

  in charge of 管理,负责照料, in the charge of 由……照料 He is in charge of the matter.

  The matter is in the charge of her.

  51. in class, in the class

  in class 在课上,in the class 在班级里 He is the best student in the class.

  52. on fire, on the fire

  on fire 着火, on the fire 在火上 Put the food on the fire. The house is on fire.

  53. out of question, out of the question

  out of question 毫无疑问的,out of the question 不可能的

  54. a second, the second

  a second 又一,再一,the second 第…… He won the second prize.

  55. by day, by the day

  by day 白天,by the day 按天计算 The workers are paid by the day.

  56. the people, a people

  the people 指人,a people 指民族 The Chinese is a peace-loving people.

  57. it, one

  it 同一物体,one 同类不同一 I lost my pen. I have to buy a new one.

  58. that, this

  that 指代上文所提到的,this 导出下文所要说的 I was ill. That's why ….

  59. none, nothing, no one

  none 强调有多少,nothing, no one 强调有没有,nothing 指物,no one 指人

  --- How many …/ How much …? --- None.

  60. anyone, any one

  anyone 指人,不能接 of,any one 指人物均可,可接 of any one of you

61. who, what

  who 指姓名或关系,what 指职业或地位 What is your dad? He is a teacher.

  62. what, which

  what 的选择基础是无限制的,which 在一定范围内进行选择

  Which do you prefer, bananas or apples?

  63. other, another

  other 后接名词复数,another 后接名词单数 other students, another student

  64. not a little, not a bit

  not a little 非常,not a bit 一点也不 I'm not a bit tired. 我一点儿也不累。

  65. many, much, a lot of

  many 和可数名词连用,much 和不可数名词连用,a lot of 可数,不可数均可,但不用于否定句

  I haven't many books.

  66. much more … than, many more … than

  much more … than 后接形容词或不可数名词,many more … than 后接可数名词 many more

  people, much more water, much more beautiful

  67. no, not

  no = not a/any no friend = not a/any friend no water = not any water

  68. no more than, not more than

  no more than 相当于 only,仅仅,只有,not more than 至多,不超过

  69. majority, most

  majority 只能修饰可数名词,most 可数不可数均可 the majority of people

  70. by oneself, for oneself, to oneself, of oneself

  by oneself 单独的,独自的,for oneself 为自己,to oneself 供自己用的,of oneself 自行的,

  自动的 The door opened of itself.

  71. at all, after all

  at all 根本,全然, after all 到底,毕竟 After all he is a child.

  72. tall, high

  tall 常指人或动物,high 常指物体 He is tall.

  73. fast, quickly

  fast 侧重于指人或物体具有运动速度快的特点,quickly 侧重指某事完成或发生的快

  run fast, answer the question quickly

  74. high, highly

  high 具体的高,highly 抽象的高,高度的 think highly of

  75. healthy, healthful

  healthy 健康的,健壮的,healthful 有益于健康的 healthful exercise

76. sleeping, asleep, sleepy

  sleeping 正在睡觉,asleep 睡着,熟睡,只能做表语,sleepy 困的,有睡意的

  a sleeping baby The baby is asleep. I'm sleepy.

  77. gold, golden

  gold 指真金制品,golden 指金色的,但金鱼用 gold fish, a gold ring

  78. most, mostly

  most 用于表感受的肯定句中,相当于 very,当大部分,大多数解时是形容词或名词,

  mostly 大部分,是副词 most people, the people are mostly …

  79. just, very

  just 表强调时是副词,作状语,very 表强调时是形容词,用作定语 the very man, just the man

  80. wide, broad

  wide 侧重于一边到另一边的距离,broad 侧重于幅面的宽广broad shoulders

  81. real, true

  real 真的,真实的,指的是事实上存在而不是想象的,true 真的,真正的,指的是事实和实际情况相符合

  real gold, a true story

  82. respectful, respectable

  respectful 尊敬,有礼貌,respectable 可敬的,值得尊敬的 be respectful to the aged

  83. outwards, outward

  二者均可用作副词,表示向外,外面,outward 还可用作形容词 an outward voyage

  84. pleasant, pleased, pleasing

  pleasant 常用作定语,pleased, pleasing 常用作表语,pleased 主语常为人,

  pleasing 主语常为物 a pleasant trip The trip is pleasing.

  85. understanding, understandable

  understanding 明白事理的,能体谅的,understandable 可理解的,能够懂的

  an understanding girl, an understandable mistake

  86. close, closely

  close 接近,靠近,closely 紧紧地,紧密地 closely connected, stand close

  87. ill, sick

  ill 做表语,sick 定,表均可 a sick boy

  88. good, well

  good 形容词,well 副词,但指身体状况是形容词 He is well again.

  89. quiet, silent, still

  quiet 安静的,可以发出小的声音,silent 不发出声音,但可以动,still 完全不动,完全无声响

  He stand there still. 他站在那儿,一动不动,也不说话。

  90. hard, hardly

  hard 努力,hardly 几乎不 work hard, I can hardly believe it.

91. able, capable

  able 与不定式 to do 连用,capable 与 of 连用 He is capable of doing …

  92. almost, nearly

  二者均为“几乎,差不多”和否定词连用用 almost almost nobody

  93. late, lately

  late 迟,晚,lately 最近,近来 I haven't seen him lately.

  94. living, alive, live, lively

  living, alive, live 均为活着的,living 定表均可,alive 定表均可,定语后置,live 只能做

  定语,lively 意为活波的 all the living people = all the people alive

  95. excited, exciting

  excited 使人兴奋的,exciting 令人兴奋的 I'm excited. The news is exciting.

  96. deep, deeply

  deep 具体的深,deeply 抽象的深,深深地 deeply moved, dig deep

  97. aloud, loud

  aloud 出声地,loud 大声地 read aloud (出声地读)

  98. worth, worthy

  二者均为值得,worth 后接 doing,worthy 后接 to be done126. care about, care for

  care about 关心,计较,在乎,一般多用于否定句中;care for 关心,照料,喜欢,愿意

  He doesn't care about his clothes. I don't care for movies.

  99  catch a cold, have a cold

  catch a cold 不能和表示“一段时间”的状语连用,而 have a cold 可以

  She has had a cold for a week.

  100. change for, change into

  change for 调换成,change into 变成

  Change the shirt for a bigger one. Water changes into ice.

  101. continue, last

  二者均为持续,continue 主动,被动均可,last 只能用主动

  The war continued/lasted five years. The story is to be continued.

  102. feed, raise

  feed 喂养,养活,饲养 (to give food to),raise 饲养,养育 (cause to grow, bring up children)

  raise the family

  103. go for a doctor, go to a doctor

  go for a doctor 去请医生,go to a doctor 去看病

  104. notice, observe, catch sight of

  notice 注意到,observe 观察,仔细地看,catch sight of 突然看到 observe the stars

  105. insist on, stick to

  insist on 坚持要求,后常接 doing, stick to 坚持, 后常接 sth., stick to the plan

106. look, seem, appear

  look 指从外表上看,seem 指内心的判断,appear 指给人以表面的印象 appear wise,

  look like his father

  107. gather, collect

  gather 把分散的东西集中到一起,collect 指精心地、有选择地进行收集 collect stamps

  108. mean to do, mean doing

  mean to do 打算,想要做某事,mean doing 意思是,意味着

  By this I mean giving the students more practice.

  109. die from, die of

  die from 表示死于(枪)伤,虚弱,过度劳累,饮食过度等,die of 表示死于疾病,饥饿,

  寒冷,年老,忧愁,失恋等精神因素 die of hunger and cold

  110. pay for, pay back, pay off

  pay for 为…付钱,pay back 还钱,但不一定还清,pay off 还清 pay for the book, pay off the debt

  111. divide, separate

  divide 把一个整体分成几部分,separate 把连在一起的个体分开

  divide the apple, separate the houses

  112. arrive, get, reach

  arrive 不及物动词,后接 in (大地点),at(小地点),get 不及物动词后接 to,reach 及物动词

  arrive in Beijing, get to Beijing, reach Beijing

  113. grow, plant

  grow 使某种植物在某地生长着或使其发展下去,plant 移植,移栽已经长成秧苗的植物

  plant the trees, trees are growing

  114. manage, try

  manage to do 设法做成了某事,try to do 尽力去做某事但不一定成功

  He tried to pass the exam, but he failed.

  115. choose, select

  choose 凭个人的判断力进行选择,select 有目的地仔细认真地选择 choose the best answer

  116. build, put up, set up, found

  build 一般用语,建成,put up 临时搭建,set up 建成(内部的设施基本齐全),

  found 国家或组织的建成 put up a tent, set up a school

  117. be familiar to, be familiar with

  be familiar to 某物对某人来说是熟悉的,be familiar with 某人熟悉某物

  The book is familiar to me. I'm familiar with the book.

  118. agree with, agree to, agree on

  agree with 同意某人,agree to 同意某事,agree on 在……上达成一致意见,主语是复数

  agree with you, agree to the plan

  119. throw to, throw at

  throw to 扔到……, throw at 朝……扔 He throw a stone at me.

  120. receive, accept

  receive 收到某一东西,但不一定接受,accept 接受 I received a gift, but I didn't accept it.

  121. wear, put on, dress

  wear 和 dress 表状态, wear 接衣服等,可用进行时,dress 接人,be dressed in, put on 表动作

  It's cold outside. Put on your warm clothes.

  122. listen, hear

  listen 强调动作,hear 强调结果 I listened, but I heard nothing.

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