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2009年中考英语词汇知识精讲   

2010-01-20 09:31:13|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2009年中考英语词汇知识精讲

一、重点是:

  (1)常见的构词法

  1)合成词:合成词是由两个或两个以上的词构成一个新的词。如:blackboard(黑板),newspaper(报纸),afternoon(下午) ,pencil-box(铅笔盒)。

  2)派生词:派生词是由词根加派生词缀构成的词,词根是派生词的基础,同一词根加不同的派生词缀可以表示不同的意义,还可以表示不同的词的词性。

  动词变名词:+后缀er drive(驾驶)——driver(驾驶员)

  teach(教)——teacher(教师)

  read(阅读)——reader(读者)

  +后缀or invent(发明)——inventor(发明家)

  visit(访问)——visitor(访问者)

  +后缀tion invent(发明)——invention(发明)

  operate(手术)——operation(手术)

  名词变形容词:+后缀y wind(风)——windy(刮风的)

  sun(太阳)——sunny(晴朗的)

  +后缀ful help(帮助)——helpful(有帮助的)

  care(小心)——careful(小心的)

  +后缀ly friend(朋友)——friendly(友好的)

  形容词变名词:+后缀ness good(好的)——goodness(善良,美德)

  kind(和善的)——kindness(和善)

  形容词变副词:+后缀ly bad(坏的)——badly(糟糕地)

  quick(快的)——quickly(迅速地)

  改变词义:+前缀un happy(高兴的)——unhappy(不高兴的)

  usual(平常的)——unusual(不平常的)

  3)转化词:转化词是指由一种词类转用作另一种词类的词。例如:

  hand(n .)手, hand(v .)传递, dry(adj .)干燥的, dry(v .) 烘干

  [说明]初中总复习中,词汇的复习十分重要。掌握单词和词组的用法是学好语言的前提之一。没有一定的词汇量,不掌握词语的基本用法,就失去了英语知识复习的基础,也就更谈不上灵活运用和综合分析能力了。

 (2)词形变化

  英语词汇的词形变化除了前面讲的词根+派生词缀构成的派生词的变化外,还存在有一些单词词尾的屈折变化,它们是:

  1)表示名词复数的词形变化。例如:

  hand—hands(手) picture—pictures(图片)

  knife—knives(小刀) city—cities(城市)

  2)表示形容词、副词的比较级和最高级的词形变化。例如:

  cheap—cheaper—cheapest(便宜的)

  late—later—latest(迟来的,迟来地)

  early—earlier—earliest(早的、早地)

  3)表示动词一般现在时第三人称单数的词形变化。例如:

  clean—cleans(打扫) catch—catches(按住) carry—carries(携带)

  4)表示动词过去时和-ed分词的词形变化。例如:

  catch—catched(捉住) carry—carried(搬运)

  close—closea(关闭) stop—stopped(阻止)

  5)表示动词-ing分词的词形变化。例如:

  walk—walking(走) make—making(做) sit—sitting(坐)

二、难点是:如何运用词或词组。

三、考点是:(1)单词拼写。(2)词形变化。(3)对词语的理解运用和相似词语的辨析。有关词汇的考题在中考中有10分左右。

  【经典范例引路】

  例1按要求写出下列单词的适当形式。

  1 .Well(最高级)_______________ 2.begin(现在分词)____________

  3 .busy(反义词)_______________ 4.he(反身代词)_______________

  (2001年甘肃省中考题)

  

简析:此题是对词形变化和单词的正确拼写的考查。要正确解答,应熟练掌握规律性的变化形式,并牢固记忆一些特殊的词形变化。第1小题是考查副词的最高级。形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的构成分为规则变化和不规则变化。well的最高级属于不规则变化,为best。第2小题是考查现在分词的构成。现在分词的构成为:(1)直接在动词原形后加-ing。(2)以不发音的e结尾的动词,先去e ,再加-ing。(3)以重读闭音节结尾且末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写这一辅音字母,再加-ing。此题符合第三条。故答案为beginning。第3小题是考查词义及单词拼写。busy意为“繁忙的,忙的”它的反义词应为“空闲的,闲的”free。故答案为free。第4小题是考查人称代词对应的反身代词。答案为himself。

  例2选择与句中划线部分意思相同或相近的词或短语。

  ( )1 .Mary called him three times yesterday , but nobody answered .

  A .visited B .gave a message to C .told D .phoned

  ( )2 .Jim comes to visit us sometimes . That is always the happiest time for the whole family .

  A .on time B .all the time C .at times D .many times

  ( )3 .Jimmy tried hard , and in the end he did it well .

  A .at first B .at the beginning C .at the end D .at last

  ( )4 .—Oh , sorry . John . I forgot to post your letter .

  —That’s all right . I’ll post it myself.

  A .Never think about it B .It doesn’t matter

  C .Don’t be sorry D .I don’t care

  ( )5 .—Hello !May I speak to the headmaster ?

  —Hold on , please .

  A .Speak louder B .Wait a moment

  C .Call again D .Speak out

  (2001年河北省中考题)

  简析:选出能替换划线部分的选项,这是一种常见题型。做此类题时应注意以下几点:(1)弄懂句意,特别是划线部分意思,以及各选项的意思。(2)能替换划线部分的选项与划线部分意思要相同。(3)选项与划线部分在句法功能上保持一致。第1小题划线部分called后接him(sb),首先要知道它在句中的意思,为“给……打电话”。A选项意为“访问”,B选项意为“给……捎口信”,C选项意为“告诉”,只有选项D .phoned意人“给……打电话”,与划线部分意思相同。且phoned与called的句法功能也相同。故答案为D。第2小题划线部分sometimes意为“有时,某时”。A选项意为“准时,按时”,B选项意为“一直总是”,C选项意为“有时,某时”,D选项意为“许多次”。故答案为C。第3小题划线部分in the end意为“最后,终于”。A选项意为“起初,开始”,B选项意为“在开始时”,C选项意为“在末尾”,D选项为“最后,终于”。故答案为D。第4小题划线部分That’s all right在此处意为“不要紧,没关系”,用来回答别人道歉的用语。A、B、C、D四个选项中只有It doesn’t matter与That’s all right意义相同。故答案为B。第5小题划线部分Hold on在此处意为“等一会儿”,是打电话时的交际用语。只有wait a moment与Hold on 意义相同,故答案为B。

例3 单项选择。

  ( )1 .Students are usually interested in sports . Some like running ;some like swimming ;_______like ball games . (2001年上海市中考题)

  A .the others B .others C .the other D .other

  ( )2 .—Can you speak Chinese ,Peter ? (2001年北京市海淀区中考题)

  —Yes , but only_______ .

  A .little B .few C .a little D .a few

  ( )3 .Don’t worry ,I’ll take good care Polly .(2001年天津市中考题)

  A .for B .of C. with D .to

 

简析:此题是考查词语意义和用法上的区别,以及词语的固定搭配。在做此类题时,我们应注意:(1)先读懂题意,找出考查点。(2)观察分析空格与它的前后部分的联系及空格在句中的句法功能。(3)根据题意及分析结果,对比所有选项,选择最恰当的选项。(4)对于难度较大、很难直接从正面找到答案,就可采用排除法——根据题意和所学知识排除错误答案。剩下的便是正确答案。第1小题是考查the others ,others ,the other ,other这四者在意义和用法上的区别:the others特指某一范围内的“其余的人(物)”而others泛指“其余的人(物)”它常和some对比使用,即“some . . .others . . .”,the other特指“(两个中的)另一个”,other泛指“另一个”。故答案为B。第2小题是考查little ,few ,a little ,a few的用法:某一语言不可数,因此B、D两选项不成立。而little是表示否定意义,a little表示肯定意义。根据题干的意思应为肯定,故答案为C。第3小题是考查take care of这一固定词组。故答案为B。

 

【综合能力训练】

Ⅰ .从下列A、B、C、D四个选项中找出恰当的字母或字母组合使单词完整正确。

  ( )1 .q ter A .ar B .or C .wor D .uar

  ( )2 .know ge A .led B .lid C .lad D .le

  ( )3 .Sat day A .er B .ir C .ur D .or

  ( )4 .po ble A .si B .ssi C .se D .sse

  ( )5 .lang ge A .wi B .wa C .ue D .ua

  ( )6 .gr nd A .ou B .au C .oa D .ua

  ( )7 .d ghter A .on B .au C .or D .ua

  ( )8 .b t ful A .u ;e B .eu ;i C .eau ;e D .eau ;i

  ( )9 .p c A .e ;cher B .i ;ture C .i ;cher D .e ;ture

  ( )10 .d ction ry A .e ;e B .i ;e C .e ;a D .i ;a

  

Ⅱ .下列每组单词中,有一个单词有拼写错误,请指出。

  ( )1 .A .caught B .braught C .taught D .bought

  ( )2 .A .has B .having C .had D .haved

  ( )3 .A .reech B .sweater C .street D .teacher

  ( )4 .A .Japanese B .machine C .polece D .writer

  ( )5 .A .care B .wear C .their D .pare

  ( )6 .A .afraid B .radio C .almist D .Canadian

  ( )7 .A .foreign B .friend C .quietly D .piece

  ( )8 .A .ladder B .bottler C .danger D .farther

  ( )9 .A .dirty B .piano C .Wenesday D .twelfth

  ( )10 .A .suddenly B .subject C .sunshine D .student

Ⅲ .根据所给英语释义写出单词(首字母已给出)。

  1 .become a member of j

  2 .have (clothes) on the body w

  3 .almost not h

  4 .not any ,no one n

  5 .at last f

  6 .the fourth day of a week W

  7 .the opposite of cheap e

  8 .father or mother p

  9 .ice box f

  10 .go in a car or on a horse or a bike r

  

Ⅳ .根据句意和音标写单词。

  1 .His sister is a [li :g] member.

  2 .Our teacher often [pleiz] games with us.

  3 .Bell [in′ventid] the telephone.

  4 .Do you [bi′li :v] what he said ?

  5 .What’s the [′we ] like today ?

  6 .They started climbing the [′mauntin].

  7 . [ u] he was ill ,he went to school.

  8 .It took 300 workers a year to [bild] the railway bridge.

  9 .By the end of last month the writer had [′ritn] 250 pages.

  10 .I will go shopping if I have [′n θi ] to do this Sunday.

  

Ⅴ .用括号中所给词的适当形式填空。

  1 .“Thank you ,”he said (polite).

  2 .Children must be stopped from (skate) on thin ice .

  3 .She spends one hour (watch) TV every day .

  4 .Keep (quietly) !They are listening to the teacher .

  5 .Would you please say it again more (loud) ?

  6 .Keep on (work) hard ,or you’ll fall behind other students .

  7 .I’ve been on the Great Wall (two) .

  8 .Thank you for (lend) me the story book .

  9 .I often write “Best (wish) for Teachers’ Day !”on the cards .

  10 .Meimei did (badly) than Lucy in the high jump .

  11 .After ten minutes’ rest ,they went on (walk) .

  12 .I saw a wallet (lie) on the ground on my way home .

  13 .There is a fire (burn) in the fireplace .

  14 . (pick) apples is better than (have) classes .

  15 .They went to the park instead of (stay) at home last Saturday .

  16 .“See you” is another way of (say) “Goodbye” .

  17 .They enjoy (take) a walk after supper .

  18 .I don’t feel like (eat) anything now .

  19 .The teachers are busy (get) ready for tomorrow’s work.

20 .Don’t forget to take the (shop) list with you.

 

【创新备考训练】(选自2001年各地中考题)

Ⅵ .根据句意,选择与句中划线部分意思相同或相近的解释。

  1 .We are very glad to hear the good news .

  A .sorry B .sad C .pleased

  2 .I will go to see my grandma this evening .

  A .visit B .move C .watch

  3 .They have a lot of apples and bananas in the basket .

  A .some B .many C .much

  4 .Alice will go shopping with her aunt tomorrow .

  A .buy something B .borrow books C .wash clothes

  5 .The little boy is good at drawing .

  A .is poor at B .is slow at C .does well in

  6 .What are the boys doing ?They are at work .

  A .are workers B .work here C .are working

  7 .We were busy last week ,so we had a little rest .

  A .a small B .a short C .a few

  8 .Mrs Green usually goes for a walk after supper .

  A .has a walk B .walks around C .wants a walk

  9 .Jim arrived at the farm early.

  A .got on B .got up C .got to

  10 .My grandma bought a big birthday present for both of us.

  A .both us B .we both C .us both

  11 .—Hello ,may I speak to Mr. White ,please ?

  —Hold on for a moment ,please .

  A .Wait B .Sit C .Stop

  12 .It’s really difficult to learn maths well .

  A .wrong B .easy C .hard

  13 .Bob is very strong .He is able to carry the box.

  A .must B .can C .need

  14 .Han Meimei has a few American friends .

  A .many B .some C .no

  15 .We are happy to see you again .

  A .worried B .sad C .pleased

 Ⅶ .根据句意及汉语提示,在下列各句空缺处写出各单词的正确形式。

  1 .Can you answer my (三) question in English ?

  2 .Mary did (差) in the exam than Lucy .

  3 .Look !They are talking (高兴) in the room .

  4 .I (驾驶) my car to Beijing last summer .

  5 .My house is not far from my (叔叔) .

  6 .The sun is (照耀) brightly in the sky .

  7 .They will bring some (土豆) for a picnic tomorrow .

  8 .He gets on very well with his (父母) .

  9 .I like (浅) colours ,for example ,white .

  10 .Mr Wang (搬迁) here last week .He is a new comer .

  11 .I usually go to work on (步行) .

  12 .There are ten (班级) in our grade .

  13 .Lucy studies (努力地) than Lily

  14 .Mr Smith will give us a talk at the (会议) .

  15 .—Excuse me ,may I (借) your eraser ?

  —Certainly .here you are .

  16 .It is an (容易的) question .I can answer it .

  17 .He won’t do it .I won’t do it , (也) .

  18 .Is there a (书桌) in your room ?

  19 .Your hands are so (脏的) again .Go and wash them .

  20 .They have planted more than two (千) young trees this spring .

 

Ⅷ .根据句子的意思和首字母提示,用适当的词填空,使句子的意思连贯与正确。

  1 .Whose is this T-shirt ?It isn’t m .It’s hers .

  2 .This bag is big .Please give me a s one .

  3 .My father works in a hospital .He is a d .

  4 .April is the f month of the year .

  5 .When the lights are g ,the traffic can go .

  6 .Fifteen minutes is a q .

  7 .September 10th is T Day .

  8 .C is spoken by the largest number of people in the world .

  9 .When s comes ,everything begins to grow .It’s my favourite season of the year .

  10 .—Pardon ,doctor ?

  —I said ,“Take the m three times a day ,and you’ll be well soon .”

  11 .Mr Turner liked visiting some places of great interest ,but he didn’t want to s too much money .

  12 .—Have you watched the seven o’clock CCTV news report ?

  —Yes .There is a lot of i news in it .

  13 .You look w .What’s wrong with you ?

  14 .—Do you mind cleaning your room ?It’s very d .

  —Certainly not .I’ll do it as soon as possible .

[参考答案]

综合能力训练

Ⅰ .1—5 DACBD 6—10 ABDBD

Ⅱ .1—5 BDACD 6—10 CABCC

Ⅲ .1 .join 2 .wear 3 .hardly 4 .none 5 .finally 6 .Wednesday 7 .expensive 8 .parent 9 .fridge 10 .ride

Ⅳ . 1 .League 2 .plays 3 .invented 4 .believe 5 .weather 6 .mountain 7 .Though 8 .build 9 .written 10 .nothing

Ⅴ .1 .politely 2 .skating 3 .watching 4 .quiet 5 .loudly 6 .working 7 .twice 8 .lending 9 .wishes 10 .worse 11 .walking 12 .lying 13 .burning 14 .Picking ;having 15 .staying 16 .saying 17 .taking 18 .eating 19 .getting 20 .shopping

  

创新备考训练

Ⅵ . 1 .C 2 .A 3 .B 4 .A 5 .C 6 .C 7 .B 8 .A 9 .C 10 .C 11 .A 12 .C 13 .B 14 .B 15 .C

Ⅶ . 1 .third 2 .worse 3 .happily 4 .drove 5 .uncle’s 6 .shining 7 .potatoes 8 .parents 9 .light 10 .moved 11 .foot 12 .classes 13 .harder 14 .meeting 15 .borrow 16 .easy 17 .either 18 .desk 19 .dirty 20 .thousand

Ⅷ .1 .mine 2 .small 3 .doctor 4 .fourth 5 .green 6 .quarter 7 .Teacher’s 8 .Chinese 9 .spring 10 .medicine 11 .spend 12 .important/interesting 13 .worried/weak 14 .dirty

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