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中考英语语法总结  

2010-01-22 11:17:11|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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中考英语语法总结
一、祈使句结构
1、祈使句结构
  祈使句用以表达命令,要求,请求,劝告等。
1)祈使句有两种类型,一种是以动词原形开头,在动词原形之前加do (但只限于省略第二人称主语的句子)。
Take this seat.
Do be careful.
否定结构:
Don't move.
Don't be late.
2)第二种祈使句以let开头。
Let 的反意疑问句
a. Let's 包括说话者 
Let's have another try,shall we / shan't we  = Shall we have another try 
b. Let us 不包括说话者
Let us have another try,will you / won't you  = Will you please let us have another try 
否定结构:
Let's not talk of that matter.
Let us not talk of that matter. 
二、感叹句结构
感叹句结构
感叹句通常有what, how引导,表示赞美、惊叹、喜 悦、等感情。
what修饰名词,how 修饰形容词,副词或动词,感叹句结构主要有以下几种:
掌握它的搭配,即掌握了感叹句的重点。
How +形容词+ a +名词+       陈述语序   
How+形容词或副词+         陈述语序
What +名词+            陈述语序
What +a+形容词+名词+        陈述语序
What+ 形容词+复数名词+       陈述语序
What+ 形容词+不可数名词+      陈述语序
How clever a boy he is!
How lovely the baby is!
What noise they are making!
What a clever boy he is!
What wonderful ideas (we have)!
What cold weather it is!
感叹句的省略形式为:
What a clever boy (he is)!
典型例题
1)___ food you've cooked!
A. How a nice  B. What a nice  C. How nice  D. What nice
 答案D. 由于How 修饰形容词,副词;what修饰名词。且food为不可数名词,因此A,B 排除。C How + adj. 后面不能再加名词,因此只有D正确,其句型为What + adj. +n. (不可数)
2)___terrible weather we've been having these days! 
A. What  B. What a  C. How  D. How a 
 答案A. weather为不可数名词,B,D排除。C为how + adj. 后面不应有名词。只有A,符合句型What +形容词+不可数名词。
3) --- _____ I had!
   --- You really suffered a lot.
A. What a time  B. What time   C. How a time   D. how time
 答案A. 感叹句分两类:
1:What + n.+主谓部分
2:How + adj. / adv. / v.+主谓部分。本题属第一种,但省略了bad,相对于 What a bad time I had! 这是个习惯用语。
三、句子的种类 
句子的种类
(一)按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。
1)陈述句(Declarative Sentences):说明一个事实或陈述一种看法。
  Light travels faster than sound. 光比声速度快。(说明事实)
  The film is rather boring. 这部电影很乏味。
(说明看法)
2)疑问句(Interrogative Sentences):提出问题。有以下四种:
a. 一般疑问句(General Questions):
Can you finish the work in time. 你能按时完成工作吗 
b. 特殊疑问句(W Questions; H Questions):
Where do you live? 你住那儿 
How do you know that? 你怎么知道那件事 
c. 选择疑问句(Alternative Questions):
Do you want tea or coffee  你是要茶还是要咖啡 
d. 反意疑问句(Tag-Questions):
He doesn't know her, does he. 他不认识她,对不对 
3)祈使句(Imperative Sentences):提出请求,建议或发出命令,例如:
Sit down, please. 请坐。
Don't be nervous! 别紧张!
4)感叹句(Exclamatory Sentences):表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪,例如:
What good news it is! 多好的消息啊!
(二)句子按其结构可以分为以下三类:
1)简单句(Simple Sentences):只包含一个主谓结构句子叫简单句,例如:
She is fond of collecting stamps. 她喜欢集邮。(主)  (谓)
2)并列句(Compound Sentences):包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫并列句,句与句之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接,例如:
The food was good, but he had little appetite.
(主)   (谓)      (主)(谓)
食物很精美,但他却没什么胃口。
3)复合句(Complex Sentences):包含一个主句从句和一个或几个从句的句子叫复合句,从句由从属连词引导,例如:
The film had begun when we got to the cinema.
主句       从句
我们到达电影院的时候,电影已经开演了。
(三)基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns):英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的:
1)主 + 动(SV)例如:
   I work. 我工作。
2)主 + 动 + 表(SVP)例如:
   John is busy. 约翰忙。
3)主 + 动 + 宾(SVO)例如:
   She studies English. 她学英语。
4)主 + 动 + 宾 + 补(SVOC)例如:
   Time would prove me right. 时间会证明我是对的。
5)主 + 动 + 间宾 + 直宾(SVOiOd)例如:
   My mother made me a new dress. 我母亲给我做了一件新衣裳。
need/want
12.7 need/want/require/worth
注意:当 need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以表示被动。
Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。
The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。
The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。
典型例题
The library needs___, but it'll have to wait until Sunday. 
A. cleaning  B. be cleaned  C. clean  D. being cleaned
  答案A. need (实意) +n /to do,need (情态)+ do,当为被动语态时,还可need + doing. 本题考最后一种用法,选A。如有to be clean 则也为正确答案。
典:done,"不可能已经"。must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。
四、被动表示主动
 被动形式表示主动意义
be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be finished, be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get marries
He is graduated from a famous university. 他毕业于一所有名的大学。
注意:表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb. 都可。
   He married a rich girl.
   He got married to a rich girl. 
五、主动表示被动
 主动形式表示被动意义
1) wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell, drive…
The book sells well. 这本书销路好。
This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。
2) blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build
I was to blame for the accident.
Much work remains.
3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。
The door needs repairing. = The door needs to be repaired.
This room needs cleaning. 这房间应该打扫一下。
This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。
4) 特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己),have sth. done ( 要某人做某事)。
六、不用被动语态
 不用被动语态的情况
1) 不及物动词或动词短语无被动语态:
appear, die disappear, end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand
break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place.
  After the fire, very little remained of my house.
比较: rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。
(错) The price has been risen.
  (对) The price has risen.
  (错) The accident was happened last week.   
  (对) The accident happened last week.
  (错) The price has raised.          
  (对) The price has been raised.
  (错) Please seat.              
  (对) Please be seated.
  要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。
  2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语:
fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to
  This key just fits the lock.
  Your story agrees with what had already been heard.
 
  3) 系动词无被动语态:
appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn
   It sounds good.
 
  4) 带同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态:
die, death, dream, live, life
   She dreamed a bad dream last night.
 
  5) 当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。
   (对) She likes to swim.
   (错) To swim is liked by her. 
表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组
   believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand
It is said that…   据说  
It is reported that… 据报道   
It is believed that… 大家相信     
It is hoped that… 大家希望
It is well known that… 众所周知 
It is thought that… 大家认为
It is suggested that… 据建议    
It is taken granted that…  被视为当然 
It has been decided that… 大家决定  
It must be remember that…务必记住的是
It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday.
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