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2010中考英语重点句法考点:宾语从句和状语从句  

2010-01-24 08:51:19|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2010中考英语重点句法考点:宾语从句和状语从句

  一、直接引语变间接引语
  1.人称的变化:一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新。
  1). "一随主"指若直接引语中的主语为第一人称时, 变间接引语时应与主句的主语人称一致.
  She said "I like playing basketball".
  She said that _____ _____ playing basketball .
  2). "二随宾"指若直接宾语中的主语为第二人称时, 变间接宾语时应与主句的宾语人称一致.
  She asked Tom "Can I have a look at your picture".
  She asked Tom if ______ could have a look at ______ picture .
  3). "第三人称不更新"指若直接宾语中的主语为第三人称时, 变间接宾语时人称保持不变.
  She said to me "They want to help me".
  She told me that _____ _____ to help me .
  2.指示代词,时间、地点状语的变化
 
  直接引语 间接引语   
指示代词  this that   
  that those   
时间状语  now then   
  today that day   
  this morning that morning    
  three days ago three days before   
  Last week  the week before   
  tomorrow the next /
following day   
  next year the next year   
地点
状语 here there   
动词 come go 

  二. 宾语从句的考查
  宾语从句在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或形容词的宾语。根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。
  1.考查宾语从句的语序:
   宾语从句的语序用陈述句语序。即 "主语+谓语+……
  Do you know when __________?
  A. does the next train leave   B. the next train leaves 
  C. will the next train leave    D. the next train will leave
  注:若从句时疑问句,但语序不变的有:
  1).who在从句中作主语。
  Can you tell me _________?(谁将来这儿)
  2).what's wrong / the matter ?
  He asked what was the matter with me .
  3).what happened
  I don't know what happened yesterday .
  4).which is the way to ….?
  Can you tell me which is the way to the park ?
  2.考查宾语从句的引导词
  1).若宾语从句时陈述句时,引导词用that 且that 可省掉。
  She said "I'm glad to see you"   =   She said _____ _____ ______ gald to see me .
  2).宾语从句时一般疑问句时,引导词用if 或whether . 一般情况下if /whether 可互换,但后有or not / or 、动词不定式或介词的后面时,只能用whether .
  He asked me "Are you going to Wuhan ?" =  He asked me ______ _____ _____ going to Wuhan.
  I'm thinking about ______ to go there .
  A. if  B. whether  C .that 
  3).宾语从句时特殊疑问句时,引导词用特殊疑问词。
  Do you know ________? I'm not sure ,Maybe he is a businessman .
  A. who he is  B. who is he   C. what he does  D. what does he do
  4).若宾语从句时肯定祈使句时,就改为ask /tell sb to do sth .若为否定祈使句,就改为ask /tell sb. not to sth.
  "Don't open the door" The teacher said .   =  The teacher told me _____ ____ ___ the door .
  3.宾语从句的时态
  1. 如果主句的时态是一般现在时,宾语从句该用什麽时态就用什麽时态。
  Can you tell me _________?  He is a doctor .
  A. what is he   B. what he was   C. what he is  D. what was he 
  2. 如果主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句只能用相应的过去时态(一般过去时, 过去进行时, 过去将来时,过去完成时)。
  He asked ____________.
  A. what time it is  B. what time is it     C. what time it was  D. what time was it
  He told me that he ______ for the sports meet.
  A. is preparing      B. was preparing     C. will prepare      D. has prepared
  注:1) 如果宾语从句所陈述的是客观真理,其时态常用一般现在时。
  Our teacher said that January_____(be) the first month of the year.
  Our teacher said that the earth ___(go) around the sun.
     2).若主句为could you …..?表示请求客气的语气,从句的时态仍然不变。
  Could you tell me _______?
  A. what he was doing  B. what was he doing
  C. what he is doing    D. what is he doing
  4.if /when 引导状语从句和宾语从句这两种从句。从句的时态的确定。
 
  if When if/when从句的时态   
条件/时间状语从句 如果、假如 当…的时候 一般现在时   
宾语从句 是否 什么时候 一般将来时 

  Can you guess if they___ to play football with us ? I think they will come if they ____free.
  A. come , are  B. will come , will be  C. will come , are   D. come , will be
  Can you tell me when he____ here tomorrow ?   When he _____ here , please call me .
  A. comes , comes  B. will come , will come   C. will come ,comes  D. comes, will come
  5.宾语从句的简化:
  1).宾语从句是陈述句时,且主、从句的主语一致,可简化为"动词+ to do sth".
  I hope I can meet you again .
  I hope _____ _____ you again .
  2).宾语从句是疑问句时,且主、从句的主语一致,或从句的主语与主句的宾语一致。可简化为"疑问词+ to do sth".
  I don't know what I should do next .
  I don't know ____ ____ _____ next .
  Could you tell me how I can get there ?
  Could you tell me ____ ____ _____ there ?
  John didn't decide which shirt he would buy .
  John didn't decide _____ ____ _____ _____ .
  3).hear / see / find + that + 从句 ,可改为"hear / see / find + sb (要用宾格) + doing sth".
  I heard that they were singing in the next room.=
  I heard _____ _____ in the next room .
  We found that she was playing with the cat under the tree .
  We found _____ _____ with the cat under the tree.

2010中考英语重点句法考点:状语从句
  一、引导词的选择:
  1.时间状语从句
  1).由when 、 while、as(当……时候)引导的时间状语从句。
  When jack got home , his mother was cooking .
  2).由after/ before (在….之后/ 前)引导的时间状语从句。
  The football match played after school was over .
  3).由as soon as (一…..就……)引导的时间状语从句。
  I'll ring you as soon as I reach Beijing .
  4).由not….until(直到…..才…..)引导的时间状语从句。
  They didn't stop until they finished the work .
  2.原因状语从句
   由because 、since 、as(因为、既然、由于)引导的原因状语从句。
  Since you have known about that , please tell us what to do .
  3.地点状语从句
   由wherever(无论在哪儿) 引导的地点状语从句。
  Wherever he goes , he always brings his pet dog .
  4.目的状语从句
   由so that (以便、为的是)引导目的状语从句。
  He got up very early so that he could catch the early bus .
  5.条件状语从句
   由if或unless 引导条件状语从句。
  I won't go to his party unless I am invited .
  6.比较状语从句
   由than、 as…as、not as……as 引导比较状语从句。
  There are more students in our class than in theirs .
  7.让步状语从句
   由though 、even though/ if 、although引导让步状语从句。
  Although he didn't pass the exam ,his father didn't get angry with him .
  8.方式状语从句
   由as if (好像)引导方式状语从句。
  He talked about that as if he knew everything .
  9.结果状语从句
   由so…that…、such….that…(如此…..以致于…)引导结果状语从句。
  It was raining so hard that we couldn't see the road .
  二、状语从句与主句的时态问题
  1.时间状语从句、条件状语从句与主句的时态不一致。(主句用将来时,而时间、条件状语从句用一般现在时)
  If it ________(not rain) tomorrow ,we______(go) to climb the hill .
  He ________ (become) a solider when he ______(grow) up .
  2.since引导的时间状语从句。 It is + 时间+ since + 一般过去时 
  It_____(be) ten years since we ________(leave) that city .
  3.由when、while引导的时间状语从句的时态:
   主句(过去进行时)+when +从句(一般过去时)
  主句(一般过去时)+when +从句(过去进行时)
  主句(一般过去时)+while +从句(过去进行时)
   主句(过去进行时)+while +从句(过去进行时)
  注意:看动词为短暂性动词用一般过去时,动词为延续性动词则用过去进行时。
  Mother _______(cook)supper when I ______(get)home yesterday.
  Last Sunday I_______(meet)Lin Hong when I _______(walk)in the street .
  While Han Meimei _______(sweep)the floor , Lucy _______(carry) water.
  When the students ________(have)a meeting, the teacher _______(come) in .
  4.由when、after、before、by the time引导的时间状语从句的时态:
  主、从句的谓语动作都以完成,则先发生的动作用过去完成时,后发生的动作用一般过去时。
  When they _______(get) to the cinema last light , the film ________(start) .
  I _________(go) out with my friends after I _______(finish) all the homework last night

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