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初中英语形容词副词复习资料  

2010-01-27 10:32:10|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初中英语形容词副词复习资料

四、 形容词、副词
(一) 知识概要
形容词的用法很活跃,在英语中用处也很多,但英语中修饰可数名词和不可数名词的修饰语和词组有时不同,要特别加以注意。下面将初中学习阶段中遇到的修饰可数名词的词和词组归纳如下:many, no, several, some, a few, a lot, lots, plenty, plenty of, a lot of, a large number of, enough。而修饰不可数名词的词或词组如下:much, no, some, a lot, a great deal, lots, plenty, a lot of, plenty of。其中some, no, a lot of, plenty of既可修饰可数名词又可修饰不可数名词。英语中形容词与副词有原级、比较级、最高级之分,其规则如下:
构词法 原 级 比较级 最高级                       加er,或est Tall
young    taller
younger
 tallest
youngest
 
只加r或st nice
large
 nicer
larger
 nicest
largest
 
重读闭音节末尾只有一个辅音 字母时双写该字母加er、est big
fat
hot
 bigger
fatter
hotter
 
 biggest
fattest
hottest
 
不规则变化的形容词或副词:
原 级 比较级 最高级
good better best
Well better best
bad worse worst
badly worse worst
many more most
most more most
little less lest
far farther
further
 farthest
furthest
 
old older
elder
 oldest
eldest
 
要注意的是许多形容词同时又是副词,如:back, all, alone, either, far, high, slow等。而有些形容词则要经过一定变化才能转为副词,其规律如下:
构词法 形容词 副 词
一般加ly Careful
kind
 carefully
kindly
 
尾是y时将y变成i加ly Happy
busy
easy
 Happily
busily
easily
 
其 他 true
terrible
full
possible
shy
whole
 truly
terribly
fully
possibly
shyly
wholly
 
在学习过程中要注意其变化。
此外并不是所有副词都可以修饰比较级和最高级形容词。能修饰比较级的有:much, yet, far, still, a great deal, even 和a little. 能修饰最高级的有:the very, much the, far等。
(二) 正误辨析
[误] The young likes playing football very much.
[正] The young like playing football very much.
[析] 定冠词加形容词表示一类人,应作复数看待。而定冠词加形容词表示抽象事物时则要看作单数,如:The beautiful is not always kindness.美丽并不总代表善良。
[误] The danger has gone, so the worst are over.
[正] The danger has gone, so the worst is over.
[析] 意为:"危险已经过去,最困难的状况已结束。"用定冠词加最高级形容词作主语时应看作单数形式。
[误] It is the gold age of the young.
[正] It is the golden age of the young.
[析] golden在英语中多用于比喻,如:golden hair金发,gulden voice金嗓子。而gold多用于表达金质的,如:a gold bar金条,a gold coin金币,但gold fish 金鱼例外。
[误] She is a warm heart woman.
[正] She is a warmhearted woman.
[析] 英语形容词的构词法很多,其中之一是由形容词,或数词,加名词加ed构成,如:warmhoarted 热心肠的,whitehaired 白毛的
[误] There is an alive fish in the pool.
[正] There is a living fish in the pool.
[析] 在初中范围内所学到的以a字母开头的形容词一般不能作定语,只能作表语。如:The fish is alive.(鱼还活着)这样的形容词有:alive, alike, alone, asleep, afraid, awake等。
[误] The ill man nearly died.
[正] The sick man nearly died.
[析] ill一般不作定语来形容某人有病,而要用sick,但作表语时则都可以。如:He is ill sick, ill作定语时则另有他意,如:ill luck (厄运),ill nature(天性恶劣),ill temper(心绪不好)
[误] I have important something to tell you.
[正] I have something important to tell you.
[析] 不定代词something, anyone, somebody…在用形容词修饰时,形容词应放其后。但要注意thing则不是不定代词,不符合上述规律。如:I have an important thing to tell you.
[误] I'll be free on next Sunday.
[正] I'll be free next Sunday.
[析] 在表达将来时的时候:next Sunday, next week, next year或last Sunday last week, last year前都不加介词。
[误] The girl is twoyear old.
[正] The girl is two years old.
[正] She is a twoyearold girl
[析] 由连字符连接若干名词、数词……组成的形容词,在学习时要记住两点,其一是这些词中的名词都不要用复数形式,如:twothousandword report(两千字的报告);其二是这样构成的形容词只能作定语,即用于名词之前,而不能作表语。
[误] The foreigners like those little beautiful Chinese paintings.
[正] The foreigners like those beautiful little Chinese paintings.
[析] 在名词前若有几个形容词作修饰语时,其顺序如下。
1. 指示代词,定冠词 2. 数量词 3. 性质词 4. 大小 5. 形状 6. 老少,新旧 7. 颜色 8. 材料
但要注意的是英语的习惯是一个名词前的形容词一般不要多于三个。
如: What a pretty little white horse!
Those first few short English stories were not difficult to understand. 
[误] The best way to learn English good is to speak with Englishman every day.
[正] The best way to learn English well is to speak with Englishman every day.
[析] good是形容词,这里是修饰动词speak的,所以应用副词well,但well作形容词讲时只作身体好。如:He is well.(他身体很好)。He is good.(他是个好人)。
[误] The children play on the grass nappyly.
[正] The children play on the grass happily
[析] 多音节y结尾的形容词变为副词时应将y变为i再加ly.
[误] The teacher looked angry at the students.
[正] The teacher looked angrily at the students.
[析] 英语中感观动词后面要接形容词,这时它是修饰主语的,如:The food smells good.食物闻起来很香。The teacher looked angry 老师看起来很生气。 而此句的意思为:"老师生气地看着学生",所以应用副词形式。
[误] He worked with me friendly.
[正] He was friendly to me.
[析] 不是所有结尾是ly的词都是副词,但friendly是形容词,这样的词还有lovely, lonely, costly, lively…monthly weekly…。但其中有些词既是副词,又是形容词,如:early, hourly, monthly…
[误] You can speak free in front of your friends.
[正] You can speak freely in front of your friends.
[析] free作为形容词意为"自由的,有空闲的,免费的"。作为副词讲则是"免费"之意。而freely作为副词则是"自由的,随便的"。这些要注意的词还有:hard 努力,艰苦 hardly 几乎不 late 迟,晚lately 最近的,最新的 near 近 nearly 几乎like 像 likely 几乎
[误] They must have arrived till now.
[正] They must have arrived by now.
[析] by now是用于表达到目前为止某一动作已经发生,所以应用瞬间动词。而till now是强调某一动作一直持续到现在,所以一定要用持续性动词。must have+过去分词是对过去某一事情所作的肯定推测。
[误] Someone called you right now.
[正] Someone called you just now.
[析] just now有两个意思,其一是"刚才",其二是"现在",而right now只能用于现在的状态。just则用于完成时态,如: I have just finished my homework.
[误] My father will be back from America at present.
[正] My father will be back from America presently.
[析] presently有两个意思:其一是最近,不久,其二在美语中是现在之意,与at present相同。而for the present为暂时,如: I teach English in the school for the present.
[误] I'll be back at the moment.
[正] I'll be back in a moment.
[析] at the moment 其意为"现在,当时",而in a moment意为"马上过一会",与in a minute意思相近。
[误] The train from Shanghai will arrive here in time.
[正] The train from Shanghai will arrive here on time.
[析] on time为"准时",而in time有两个含意。其一是"及时",如:The doctor arrived in time。其二是"将来,终究"。
[误] I met an old friend sometimes last month.
[正] I met an old friend sometime last month.
[析] Sometime 过去,或者将来某时。Sometimes 有时
如: Sometimes I go to school by bus.Some time 一些时间 
如: I need sometime to do my homework. Some times 几次 
如: I went to Shanghai sometimes this month.
at times 有时,偶尔
at all times 经常
some other time 改天 
[误] I had met an old friend three days ago.
[正] I had met an old friend three days before.
[正] I met an old friend three days ago.
* ago 用在时间状语中时,主句中谓语动词一般用过去时,而before用于时间状语时则主句的谓语动词宜用完成时态。
[误] He studied very hard. and at the end he passed the exam.
[正] He studied very hard, and in the end he passed the exam.
[析] in the end=at last 意为"最终,终于",表达经过若干努力而达到的结果。而at the end是在某事的结束时如何如何,如:At the end of class, the teacher gave us some story books。
[误] I will come here to help you each three days.
[正] I will come here to help you every three days.
[析] every three days 为"每三天",即每隔二天,而every other day为每隔一天。
[误] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday. and I didn't go, too.
[正] He didn't go to the cinema yesterday and I didn't go either.
[析] 英语中表示"也",有4个字,also, as well, too, either,但either用于否定句中,而前3个用于肯定句中。在肯定句中too与as well一般要用在句尾,而also则可用于句中。如:She went to the party and her boy friend went there too. 又如: I've also read her other novels.
[误] We should help the poor girl in anyway.
[正] We should help the poor girl in any way.
[析] anyway为"不管怎么"讲,"无论如何",如:What a terrible accident, anyway no one was hurt.
any way 为"任何方式"。这种常见的错误还发生在以下几组词中,如:
everyday 日常的 every day 每天
faraway 遥远的 far away 远离
altogether 总计 all together 一块,大家一起
already 已经 all ready 全准备好了
[误] You can come to the doctor's at anytime.
[正] You can come to the doctor's at any time.
[析] anytime 是副词 而any time中的time是名词。
[误] She said nearly nothing.
[正] She said almost nothing.
[析] nearly 与 almost的含意相近,在很多场合可以互换,但在否定词前用almost。
[误] There are too much mistakes in your homework.
[正] There are too many mistakes in your homework.
[析] too much 后接不可数名词,如:There is too much water for the flowers. 而too many 后加可数名词,much too 后面加形容词,如:It is much too difficult to learn English well.
[误] It is late enough that we can go home now.
[正] It is late enough for us to go home now.
[析] 要注意的是enough后面一般不接从句而接不定式,或不定式的复合结构:for somebody to do something。
[误] The twins are very alike.
[正] The twins are much alike.
[析] 用a为首字母的形容词不能用very修饰,一般要用much来修饰。
[误] - How long does he write to his parents?
- Once a week. 
[正] - How often does he write to his parents?
- Once a week. 
[析] 英文与中文表达法不同,隔多长时间办一次某事,实际上问的是该事发生的频率,所以要用how often。
[误] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call up you.
[正] As soon as I arrive in New York, I'll call you up.
[析] 当动词词组的宾语是人称代词时则一定要放于动词之后,如果是名词则可以放在词组其后。如:I want to watch TV. Please turn on the TV. 也可以讲: Please turn the TV on.
[误] He drove quickly his new car.
[正] He drove his new car quickly.
[析] 副词在句中的位置很活,但主要有以下几种用法:①实意动词之前,如:He quickly give me the answer. ② 在be动词之后,如:The little boy is often late for class. ③ 第一助动词之后,如:This book has almost been finished. ④ 在单独使用的be动词和助动词之前,如: Can you help me this afternoon? I certainly can.但是无论如何也不能将副词置于动词与宾语之间,如果是宾语从句或是很长的名词
词组作宾语则才可以这样用:
He heard clearly what the teacher said.
[误] The children came late yesterday to the cinema.
[正] The children came late to the cinema yesterday.
[析] 表示一定长度的时间的副词不应放于句中,可放于句尾。如果表示强调则可放于句首。
[误] You have few new books, haven't you?
[正] you have few new books, have you?
[析] 英语中的数量形容词有两组。修饰可数名词的有few(很少,几乎没有),a few(有一些,几个);修饰不可数名词的有little (很少,几乎没有),a little(有一点,有一些)。要注意的是当few和little用于句中时应看作否定句,而 a few 和a little 用于句中时则应看作是肯定句。

[误] He spent quite little money on his food.
[正] He spent quite a little money on his food.
[析] quite a 为一固定用法,其意为"十分,相当,所以"。 quite a few=many, quite a little=much 而only a little=little, only a few=few.
[误] Do you want to have many bread?
[正] Do you want to have some bread?
[析] some与any都可以用作形容词、副词或代词,在一般情况下,some用于肯定句,any用于疑问句和否定句,但在希望得到肯定答复时,应用some。 其次是some 可以用来修饰可数名词和不可数名词。
[误] Please tell me where the shoes shop is?
[正] Please tell me where the shoe shop is.
[析] 在用名词作修饰词来修饰另一名词时,这个作修饰词的名词应用单数形式,如:
a shoe shop 鞋店
a fruit shop 水果店
a book shop 书店
a post office 邮局
a police station 警察局
a bus stop 汽车站
[误] He is weak at physics.
[正] He is weak in physics.
[析] 在表达擅长于作某事时用be good at something, 而其反意词为be bad at something, 但be weak in something。
[误] This dictionary is worth to buy.
[正] This dictionary is worth buying.
[析] be worth 后可接动、名词表达值得作某事,又可接价格、金钱表示值多少钱。
[误] Don't afraid of that.
[正] Don't be afraid of that.
[析] afraid 在英文中是形容词而不是动词。这样的词组还有:
be afraid of 害怕 be careful of 小心
be certain of 有把握,确定 be sure of 确信
be glad of 高兴 be sick of 厌恶
be fond of 喜欢
[误] The work has already been done well.
[正] The work has already been well done.
[析] well 与badly作副词时,表示好坏,如果句子是被动语态,则应放在过去分词之前,如:This machine has been badly damaged. 如果句子是主动语态,则应放于句末,如:I did my homework well.
[误] We are yet in the classroom now.
[正] We are already in the classroom now.
[析] already主要用于肯定句,而yet多用于否定句和疑问句中,如:
Did you finish it? No. not yet.
[误] Look. Here comes he!
[正] Look! Here he comes!
[误] Look! Here the bus comes!
[正] Look! Here comes the bus!
[析] 在句子开头用Here时,如主语是人称代词则不要用倒装语序,如果主语是名词则要用倒装语序。
[误] She is my older sister.
[正] She is my elder sister.
[析] elder 和eldest是用来指家庭中兄弟姐妹的长幼关系,而older, oldest 则是指岁数大多少,如:She is three years older than I.
[误] I'm tired. I can't go further.
[正] I'm tired. I can't go farther.
[析] far有两个比较级 farther 较远的,further 进一步的,如:Do you need any further explanation? 你需要进一步的解释吗?当然它也有两个最高级。farthest和furthest.
[误] I went to Beijing University five years before.
[正] I went to Beijing University five years ago.
[析] ago常与过去时连用,而before则多与完成时连用。
[误] - Have you finished your homework?
- No, not already. 
[正] - Have you finished your homework?
- No, not yet. 
[析] 仍然有三个英文字可以表达它们是already, yet 与 still。 要注意的是 already经常用于肯定句中,如The bus has already gone。 而yet 多用于疑问句和否定句中,如:Have you finished your homework yet? 而still则常用于主语与谓语动词之间,如:We still can't decide what to do. 但也有时用于be 动词之后,如:He is still here.
[误] He is very higher than I am.
[正] He is much higher than I am.
[析] much可以用来修饰比较级,而very则用来修饰形容词原级,如:I'm very tired.
[误] - Can I walk to the station?- You'd better not. It is very far. 
[正] - Can I walk to the station?
- You'd better not, It is a long way. 
[析] for一般用在疑问句与否定句中,如:How far is it from here to the station? 又如:It isn't far.
[误] I've ever been to America.
[正] I've been to America once.
[析] once 多用于肯定句,而ever则用于疑问句,否定句,及条件状语从句中,如:Have you ever been to London?
[误] - Could you pass the exam this time?
- No, I am not afraid so. 
[正] - Could you pass the exam this time?
- No, I'm afraid not. 
[析] 在肯定的答语中我们可以用so来代替上句所讲的事件,如:Do you think she is a good student? Yes I think so, /I hope so, /I believe so/ I'm afraid so.但在否定的答语中,英语口语的习惯用法则有所不同,如,I don't think so 而在hope, belive 与 afraid后则常用not, 如:I hope not.
[误] She didn't work enough hard, so she couldn't pass the exam.
[正] She didn't work hard enough, so she couldn't pass the exam.
[析] enough 可以作名词用,如:Enough has been said for how to learn English well. (对于如何学好英语已经讲的足够多了。)另外它可以作为形容词,如:I have enough money (or money enough) to buy this dictionary. 注意 enough作为形容词时即可放于名词前又可放于名词后,在初中范围的考题中多用于名词之前。如果enough 作为副词用,那么它一定要放在被修饰的形容词或副词之后。
[误] You can't be very careful.
[正] You can't be too careful.
[析] 此句话的含意是你如何小心也不过分。too…to的用法是"太……以至于不能作某事"。但在实际应用时也常常将后面的to省去,如:It is too expensive for me.那对我来讲是太贵了。
[误] He is good past fifty.
[正] He is well past fifty.
[析] well 作为副词用时除用于"好"之外还有"大大地、远远地",等意。往往有人对下面两句的对或错有争议;
He is well.
He is good.
其实这两句都是正确的表达法,只不过其含意不同。He is well是"他身体不错",而He is good 则为"他是个好人"。
[误] She is not as half clever as her brother.
[正] She is not half as clever as her brother.
[析] 在as…as结构中要将修饰形容词的数量词倍数及nearly, almost, exactly… 等置于第一个as之前。
[误] He is same age as Tom.
[正] He is the same age as Tom.
[析] the same…as是固定的用法,其中定冠词the是不可省也不能换成别的词的。
[误] Mother and her daughter are exactly like.
[正] Mother and her daughter are exactly alike.
* like 作为介词,其意为"像",应用于 look like, be like, sound like, 其后要加宾语。而 alike 是形容词,或副词,如: You and I think alike. The twins are dressed alike。 但 alike 仅作表语而不能用于名词前作定语。
[误] Who is taller of the two?
[正] Who is the taller of the two?
[析] 两者的比较级之前要加定冠词。
[误] I have less books than Tom.
[正] I have fewer books than Tom.
[析] less 是 little的比较级,而fewer是few的比较级。less后应加不可数名词而fewer后是可数名词。
[误] There are three girls in my group. The cleverer is Mary.
[正] There are three girls in my group. The cleverest is Mary.
[析] 在两者之间应用比较级,在三者之间或三者以上的范围内应用最高级。
[误] The boy sat there as quiet as his sister.
[正] The boy sat there as quietly as his sister.
[析] as…as的用法要注意的是:①在其中间应加形容词或副词的原级,而不可加比较级,也有的语法书中称为同级比较。②要根据句意决定是加形容词还是副词,这要看它具体是修饰动词还是名词而定,如:He is as good as his friend.
[误] The harder you study, and you can learn more.
[正] The harder you study, the more you can learn.
[析] 英文中如果要表达越来越怎样,在初中范围有两种表达法:①比较级+and+比较级。②定冠词+比较级……,如:The nights are getting longer and longer。 要注意的是多音节形容词的比较级前要加more,这样的用法是:more and more 加形容词,如:The girl is growing more and more beautiful.
[误] Studying physics is not so interesting as to learn English.
[正] Studying physics is not so interesting as learning English.
[析] 在作比较时,英语一般要求对比的两部分结构应一致。如用动名词,应都用动名词,用不定式时则都用不定式。但有时在后一个不定式前的符号to可以省略。如:To repair the old one is as much expensive as (to) buy a new one.
[误] The girl is more cleverer than the boy.
[正] The girl is much more clever (much cleverer) than the boy.
[析] clever有两个比较级:cleverer和more clever,要注意的是不能用比较级来修饰比较级。clever的两个比较级也各有不同之处,如用在两种不同性质的比较时多用more clever,如:He is more clever than honest. (他的聪明要远远超过其诚实。)
[析] The boy is the tallest to the three.
[正] The boy is the tallest of the three.
[析] 最高级的范围要用of加复数形式或加集合名词。
[误] This book is one of the most useful dictionary.
[正] This book is one of the most useful dictionaries.
[析] 在one of 后面最高级形容词后要加可数名词复数。
[误] This dictionary is the much best one of the EnglishChinese dictionaries.
[正] This dictionary is much the best one of the EnglishChinese dictionaries.
[析] 在修饰最高级时应用 far/by far/much 加the加最高级。但very例外,如:He is the very best player in the team.
[误] Shanghai is bigger than any other cities in China.
[正] Shanghai is bigger than any other city in China.
[析] 在比较级中表示比较对象时如用any other其后一般要加单数名词。
[误] Most of stories in this book are written in English.
[正] Most of the stories in this book are written in English.
[正] Most stories in this book are written in English.
[析] "大多数"一词的表达法有most of the +名词,或most+名词。当用前一种结构时,其后面的定冠词不可少。
[误] The temperature of that room is higher than this room.
[正] The temperature of that room is higher than that of this room.
[析] 比较级用于两句话之间时,比较的部分不可省略掉,但为了避免重复,一般都要用that代替前面的单数名词,而用those代替前面的复数名词,如:The books in that box are bigger than those in this box。
[误] He is no more here. Maybe he is at home.
[正] He is no longer here. Maybe he is at home.
[析] no more在现代英语中多译为:"从此再也不会了",如:His voice is no more here. 他已经去世了,他的声音不可能再出现了。而用no longer 表达目前的状态。要注意下面几组句子的实际含意:This room is no cleaner than that one.即两间屋子都不干净。(两者都不干净) This room is not cleaner than that one,即这屋子不如那间干净。(前者不如后者干净。即一间干净,一间不干净。)
(三) 例题解析
1 I think Chinese is ___ than maths.
A. interesting B more interesting
C. most interesting D. the most interesting 
[答案] B. 
[析] 在有than作比较的句子中应用形容词的比较级。
2 - What does Lucy like better, singing or dancing?
- Singing. of course. She's known to ___ it.
A. be good at B. be good for
C. be bad at D. be bad for 
[答案] A. 
[析] be good at为固定搭配,意为"擅长作某事"。初中英语中有些这样的固定用法应记牢,而不能似是而非。如:be good at, be bad at, be poor in, be week in, be fit for
3 The Huang He River is one of ___ in China.
A. The long river B. the longest river
C. the longest rivers D. the longer river 
[答案] C. 
[析] 在one of + 定冠词+最高级之后的名词应用复数形式。
4 The girl was ___ afraid ___ she threw her bag away.
A. so, that B. too, to C. too, that D. enough, to 
[答案] A. 
[析] so…that为"如此怎样以至于如何",此句意思是:小女孩如此害怕以至于扔下包跑掉了。而too…to的意思为"如何如何,以至于不能作某事"。但to的后面是动词原形,而不是从句。
5 It was ___ yesterday than today.
A. hot B. hoter
C. hotter D. the hottest 
[答案] C. 
[析] 用than表达比较的句中应用比较级 。
6 Which subject do you like ___ , English Chinese or maths?
A. best B. well
C. better D. good 
[答案] A. 
[析] 在两者之间应用比较级,而在三者之间或三者以上用最高级。
7 None of the students watched it ___ .
A. careful enough B. enough carefully
C. carefully enough D. enough careful 
[答案] C. 
[析] 首先应判定是选用用来修饰名词的形容词还是用来修饰动词的副词。这里是修饰watch这一动词,应选用副词。当enough用来修饰副词或形容词时应放于被修饰的形容词或副词之后。
8 ___ she eats, ___ she'll be.
A. More…fat B. The more…fatter
C. More…the fatter D. The more…the fatter 
[答案] D. 
[析] the+比较级表示"越来越……"本句应译为:她吃得越多,她就会越胖。
9 I don't think English is ___ Chinese.
A. as important as B. not important as
C. not so important D. important as 
[答案] A. 
[析] think+宾语从句时,应采用否定主句的形式,如:中文讲,"我认为你不对",英文应为:"我不认为你对"。 I don't think you are right. 所以不能选答案B。而C、D均为不正确的表达法。
10 Miss Gao is a good English teacher. The students in her class ___ English.A. are interested in B. are interesting in
C. are interested at D. are interesting to 
[答案] A. 
[析] 过去分词常用来修饰人,而现在分词常用来修饰物,如:an interesting book, 实际上过去分词含有被动之意,如:interested 其含意是"被……所吸引,感动"。而interesting 则为"使人感兴趣的",如:an interesting man 一个有趣、风趣的人。
11 The twins are together most of the time. So they never feel ___ .
A. alone B. lonely
C. happily D. friendly 
[答案] B. 
[析] alone意为"独自的,一个人的",它只能作表语不能作定语。I am not alone in doing such a thing.而lonely 意为"寂寞的,孤单的",如:The old man felt lonely. 要体会两个词的区别,如:The old man lived alone, but he didn't feel lonely.
12 What a ___ cough! You seem ___ ill.
A. terrible, terribly B. terribly, terrible
C. terrible, terrible D. terribly, terribly 
[答案] A. 
[析] terrible是形容词,而terribly是副词,第一个空是修饰名词的,所以应填入形容词。第二个空ill是形容词,这里terribly 是用来修饰ill的。
13 The two friends were ___ pleased to see each other that they forgot everything. A. so B. too
C. very D. much 
[答案] A. 
[析] 这里用的是so…that的固定搭配。
14 Which is ___ , Li Lei's box or Han Meimei's box?
A. heavy B. heavier
C. more heavier D. the heaviest 
[答案] B. 
[析] 两者之间用比较级,三者或以上用最高级。
15 You don't like the same colours and I don't like them, ___ .
A. too B. also
C. either D. neither 
[答案] C. 
[析] 在否定句中也应用either, 而不要用too,因too用于肯定句中。
16 Jim is ___ at all his lessons. And I'm sure he'll do very ___ in the exams.
A. well, good B. good, well
C. well, well D. good, good 
[答案] B. 
[析] good为形容词,如:He is good. 他是个好人。而well作为身体状况的好坏讲时是形容词,如:He is well为他身体不错,而作为其他意思时为副词,如:He speaks English well.
17 You look ___ than before, why?
A. more thin B. more thinner
C. much more thin D. much thinner 
[答案] D. 
[析] 多音节形容词才用more或most加形容词来表示其比较级或最高级,而thin的比较级为thinner。
18 Let's go out for supper now. I'm very ___ .
A. hungry B. angry
C. tired D. thirsty 
[答案] A. 
[析] hungry-饿,angry-生气,tired-紧,疲劳,thirsty-口渴。要注意名词的词义。
19 - Can you understand me?
- Sorry, I can ___ understand you.
A. hardly B. almost
C. even D. ever 
[答案] A. 
[析] hardly为一否定词,用在句中时应被看作是否定句。在答语中Sorry决定了其意为"听不明白",所以只能选 hardly。
20 "___ do you write to your penfriend?"
"About twice a month."
A. How often B. How soon
C. How much D. How long 
[答案] A. 
[析] how often用来提问某一动作经多久就要发生一次,也就是提问发生的频率。how soon是问从现在起还有多久。
21 Changjiang River is ___ river in China 
A. long B. longer
C. longest D. the longest 
[答案] D. 
22 I'll work ___ I can.
A. so hardly as B. so hard as
C. as hardly as D. as hard as 
[答案] D. 
[析] hard可用作形容词和副词,如:The desk was made of hard wood 又如:It is raining hard。 而 hardly 是副词,其词义是"几乎不",如:Hardly did I sleep last night. 我昨晚几乎没有睡觉。而且hardly用于句首时要采用倒装语序。as…as即可以用于肯定句,也可以用于否定句,但so…as则只能用于否定句中。
23 It is very ___ to listen to him.
A. interested B. interesting
C. interested in D. interest 
[答案] B. 
[析] interest作为名词有两个词义,①兴趣,②银行中所讲的利息。而其形容词 interesting是"使人感兴趣的",而interested是"感兴趣的"如:He is interested in English.
24 Things are ___ worse than I thought.
A. more B. few
C. very D. much 
[答案] D. 
[析] 只有much可以修饰比较级。
25 It is one o'clock, but her father hasn't come back ___ .
A. already B. still
C. too D. yet 
[答案] D. 
[析] 完成时的否定句尾要用yet, 而already则用于肯定句。
26 Comrade Chen is ___ older than I. 
A. very B. more
C. much D. quite 
[答案] C. 
[析] 只有much可以修饰比较级。可以修饰比较级的词还有much, far, even a little, by far等。
27 She did her homework ___ .
A. carefully B. careful
C. care D. careless 
[答案] A. 
[析] 这里应填入副词,而careless是由care加less后辍得来的,less意为"没有",是否定之意,如:careless-不小心,homeless-无家可归。而carefully为副词。
28 They can't answer the question in Japanese; we can't answer it, ___ .A. also B. too
C. either D. neither 
[答案] C. 
29 - How are your parents?
- They are very ___ , thank you.
A. good B. kind
C. well D. happy 
[答案] C. 
[析] 由问句得知其询问的是身体如何,所以well作为身体状况不错时应视为形容词。30 Peter runs ___ in our class.
A. the fast B. faster
C. fastest D. most fast 
[答案] C. 
[析] 副词的最高级前可以加定冠词,也可以不加定冠词。
31 We were all ___ glad that we sang and danced.
A. such B. so
C. very D. quite 
[答案] B. 
[析] 在so与that之间只有形容词时不可用such。
32 Kate sings ___ Joan.
A. as well as B. as good as
C. so good as D. as better as 
[答案] A. 
[析] 这里well为副词,意为"唱得好"。
33 This egg smells ___ , though it looks all right.
A. good B. well
C. bad D badly 
[答案] C. 
[析] smell为系动词,其后应加形容词,而不是副词。同样的词,还有sound, feel, seem、become(变成)等等,如:Ice feels cold in winter.
34 Wait a minute, I have ___ to tell you.
A. something interested B. something interesting
C. interesting something D. anything interesting 
[答案] B. 
[析] 修饰不定代词的修饰词要放在不定代词之后。
35 I shall visit you ___ next year.
A. sometimes B. sometime
C. some time D. some times 
[答案] B. 
[析] sometimes 有时,sometime 某一时刻,some time 一段时间, some times 若干次
36 My sister said she would try to speak ___ English every day.
A. a little B. a few
C. litttle D. few 
[答案] A. 
[析] little修饰不可数名词,而a little意为"一些,一点"。
37 I have ___ friends here and I often visit them.
A. few B. little
C. a few D. a little 
[答案] C. 
[析] a few意为"有些",few后面要加可数名词复数。
38 Of all these books, do you think, which one is ___ ?
A. interesting B. much interesting
C. more interesting D. the most interesting 
[答案] D. 
[析] Of all these books 是用来表示最高级的范围

五、 连 词

(一) 知识概要
连词是一种在句子与句子之间,短语之间以及名词等其他词语之间起连接作用的虚词,它不能单独作句子的成份。按其意义可分为并列连词和从属连词两大类。并列连词连接的双方是对等的。常有的并列连词有and, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, as well as等。但如果连接的两部分意义不趋向一致,意义有转折的并列连词有:but, however, while (而),only (只不过)。还有表示选择关系的并列连词,如:or, or else, otherwise… 再有的是连接双方,互为因果,或表示前因后果的连词有:for, so, therefore (因此),then等。从属连词在初中范围内常常用来连接名词性从句,如:that, if, whether, 其次用来连接状语从句。其中有原因状语从句,常用的连接词有:when while, as, since, before, after, once, as soon as, until, till 连接条件状语的连词有:if, unless, as long as 等,而原因状语的连接词有because, since, as, now that (既然)。目的、结果、方式、比较、地点等状语从句的连接词有:so that, so…that, such…that, as…as, than, where… 它们在句子与文章中几乎无处不见。具体用法见下表。
连词用法一览表
种类 功用 例句
并列连词  连接具有并列关系的 词 He knows neither English nor French.
短语 Are you going by bus or on foot?
分句 Mary was a good girl, but she had one shortcoming. 
从属连词 引导:  状语从句  I'll do it as you told me.
You will be late unless you hurry.
连接代词和连接副词 主语从句  What he said proved true.
When we'll start has not been decided yet.
表语从句  This is why he didn't come yesterday.
That is where he lives.
宾语从句 The man asked me which I liked best.
I can't understand why she is so late.
关系代词和关系副词  定语从句  Nicotine is a drug that gets one into the habit of smoking.
He came last night when I was out.
 
(二) 正误辨析
[误] Both my parents are not here. They went to the concert just now.
[正] Neither of my parents is here. They went to the concert just now.
[析] 在英语中both一般用于肯定句中,如用于否定句中,其意义也不同于汉语,如:Both of us are not right. 在英语中应被理解为"我们俩不都对。"而Neither of us is right。 才能被理解为"我们俩无一正确"。
[误] He or his parents has some tickets for the film.
[正] He or his parents have some tickets for the film.
[析] 由or 连接两主语时,谓语动词应与相临近的那一个主语保持一致。
[误] You should study hard, and you won't pass the exam.
[正] You should study hard, or you won't pass the exam.
[析] or作为连词,这里的意思为"否则"。又如:Hurry up, or you'll be late for school.
[误] Though he is poor, but he is ready to help others.
[正] Though he is poor, he is ready to help others.
[正] He is poor, but he is ready to help others.
[析] "虽然……但是"是中文中的常用结构,但在英文中用了"虽然"则不要用"但是",用了"但是"则不能再用"虽然",二者只可用其一。
[误] Either you or I are on duty.
[正] Either you or I am on duty.
[析] either…or 连接两个主语时,其谓语动词与相临近的一个主语相呼应,这也叫作就近原则。类似的用法还有or, neither… nor, not only…but also等。
[误] Tom is our English teacher and teaching English in our school now.
[正] Tom is our English teacher and is teaching English in our school now.
[析] 并列句中常常在后面的句子中作一些省略,以免重复,但不是所有词都可作任意的省略的。当你连接的是两个系动词时,后面的那个系动词不可省略,也就是讲连接的部分不可省略。
[误] My father likes swimming and to collect stamps.
[正] My father likes swimming and collecting stamps.
[析] 由并列连词连接的两个部分要保持相等的语法结构。如是动名词则都用动名词,如用不定式则都应用不定式,这是初学者要注意的一点。
[误] My father is reading a newspaper, I am doing my homework.
[正] My father is reading a newspaper while I am doing my homework.
[析] 两个并列句中间不可用逗号连接,要用并列连词来连接。
[误] My father asked me that if I wanted to learn how to drive.
[正] My father asked me if I wanted to learn how to drive.
[析] 宾语从句的连接词只能有一个不能重复使用。
[误] We will go both to Beijing and Shanghai.
[正] We will go to both Beijing and Shanghai.
[析] 用both…and…作连接词时,其相连接的部分结构也要相同。
[误] Not only Mary but also her brothers is going to dance.
[正] Not only Mary but also her brothers are going to dance.
[析] 由not only… but also…连接两个主语时,其重点在其后面的那一个主语,所以谓语形式应采用就近原则。
[误] The teacher as well as his students are coming.
[正] The teacher as well as his students is coming.
[析] 由as well as 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与as well as 后面的名词无关,而与前面的名词相一致。
[误] Tom does not swim nor play football.
[正] Tom does not swim or play football.
[析] nor主要用于连接句子的对等连词,如在否定句中连接某一部分时要用or, 但要注意句子的含意,如:This animal does not like a cow or a horse. 这个动物既不像牛也不像马。This animal does not like a cow but a horse. 这个动物不像牛而像马。
[误] For there is no light in the classroom. The students must have gone home.
[正] The students must have gone home, for there is no light in the classroom.
[析] 由for引出的原因状语从句在使用时要注意不能将该从句置于句 首,而应置于主句之后,并在主句与从句之间加一逗号。更要注意的是because, as, since与for 4个表示原因的连词中because是因果关系,是最强的一个,而for是最弱的一个。有些语法书中干脆把for叫做并列连词
[误] My brother will pass the English exam is no question.
[正] That my brother will pass the English exam is no question.
[析] 主语从句的引导词that是不可省略的。这一点不要和宾语从句的引导词相提并论。
[误] This map will show you how will you get to the hotel.
[正] This map will show you how you will get to the hotel.
[析] 名词性从句作宾语从句使用时,最重要的一点是要用陈述语句。特别要注意的是那些使用双宾语的动词,如:tell, ask, show…
[误] While the clock struch ten, all the lights went out.
[正] When the clock struck ten, all the lights went out.
[析] while是强调两个动作在同时进行中,如:While I am doing myhomework, my father is reading a newspaper. 而这里的when是"正当某某时刻","就在这一时间点上",其重点强调在某一特定时刻某动作的发生。
[误] While I was walking along the street yesterday, I met an old friend.
[正] When I was walking along the street yesterday, I met an old friend.
[析] 这里用when表达在一个动作的进行中,另一个动作突然发生了。正在进行的动作用一进行时态,而突然发生的动作用一般时态。
[误] While I heard the bad news I felt sad.
[正] When I heard the bad news, I felt sad.
[析] while不能表达一点儿的时间,即瞬时某一时间点。
[误] After school some students play football, or others go to the library.
[正] After school some students play football, while others go to the library.
[析] while在此处意为"而,然而"。
[误] She sang when she walked along the dark street.
[正] She sang as she walked along the dark street.
[析] as用于句中时,其要点是强调两个动作的同时进行。这里用when虽然不能讲是语法上的错误,但则看不出来小女孩因独自走黑暗的街道因害怕而唱歌的心情。
[误] I finished my homework until twelve o'clock last night.
[正] I didn't finished my homework until twelve o'clock last night.
[正] I did my homework until twelve o'clock last night.
[析] until用在句中时其含义是某一动作一直持续到某时结束,那么句中的动词则一定要用持续性动词,如果要用瞬间,或截止性动词时一定要用否定句式。因截止性动作的否定式应看作是持续性的动作。如离开leave是瞬间动作,因一出门即为离开了,而不离开则是长时间的。
[误] I have studied English when I was twelve.
[正] I have studied English since I was twelve.
[析] since引出的时间状语从句是表达了一个时间点,而这个时间点是主句动作的启始点,所以主句一般要用完成时态。
[误] Because he didn't study hard, so he didn't pass the exam. 
[正] He didn't pass the exam because he didn't study hard.
[析] because 与 so在英文中两者不能并用的,只能在句中用其一。
[误] He was such excited that he could not speak.
[正] He was so excited that he could not speak.
[析] so与such的用法可以分为四种情况,①用于单数可数名词之前,其格式是such+不定冠词+形容词+单数可数名词,如:It is such a beautiful book that every child likes it. 也可以用so, 其格式是so+形容词+不定冠词+单数可数名词,如:It was so beautiful a book that every child likes it. ②在不可数名词前或可数名词复数前这时只能用such, 如:It is such good weather that we want to swim. 又如:They are such good students that they can pass the exam easily. ③在few, little, much, many 这4个字前只能用so而不能用such, 如:I have so much money that I can buy everything I want. ④当that前只有形容词或副词时,这时只能用so, 如:She is so beautiful that every one likes her. He ran so fast that I couldn't keep up with him.
[误] He got up earlier this morning so as to that he could catch the first bus.
[正] He got up earlier this morning so as to catch the first bus.
[正] He got up so earlier that he could catch the first bus.
[析] so…that与so that的用法有相同之处,那就是其后接从句,而so as to 其后要接不定式,即动词原形。这样的词组还有:in order to。
[误] I want to buy same stamp that you have.
[正] I want to buy the same stamp as you have.
[析] the same…as (that)这是个固定用法,在same前的定冠词是不能少的。而the same…that意为"我要的就是那一个"。而the same…as为"要的是和……一样的东西"。
[误] Before I do not give you the answer, I'll ask you some questions.
[正] Before I give you the answer, I'll ask you some questions.
[析] 这种错误是由于受中文的影响。在中文中可以讲"我没给你答案前"。而英文用了before就不要再用否定句了。
(三) 例题解析
1 We bought Granny a present, ___ she didn't like it.
A. but B. and
C. or D. so 
[答案] A. 
[析] 由于句意的原因,应选择转折连词。
2 Run quickly, ___ we'll miss the early train.
A. and B. but
C. so D. or 
[答案] D. 
[析] or这里应译为:否则。
3 I'll give the book to him ___ he comes back.
A. since B. as soon as
C. before D. until 
[答案] B. 
[析] as soon as 引出的时间状语从句应用一般现在时表示将来要发生的动作。
4 Don't cross the road ___ the light turns green.
A. when B. while
C. until D. as 
[答案] C. 
[析] until应译为"直到……才",因为前面的祈使句为否定句。又如:She did not go to bed until her mother came back. 应译为"直到她妈妈回来她才睡觉"。
5 Miss Gao has been a teacher ___ 1990.
A. before B. after
C. since D. in 
[答案] C. 
[析] 因为主句为完成时,所以应用 since表示该动作的启始点。
6 - Which would you like better, tea ___ milk?
- Tea, please.
A. but B. and
C. or D. with 
[答案] C. 
[析] 在疑问句与否定句中应用or来表示一种选择。
7 We love spring ___ there's beautiful flowers every where.
A. though B. but
C. or D. because 
[答案] D. 
[析] 因为这里表示的是因果关系。
8 Please leave ___ 7∶00, then you'll be able to get ___ there earlier.
A. till, in B. from, /
C. before, / D. behind, to 
[答案] C. 
[析] before为在7∶00之前离开。
9 The teacher didn't begin the lesson ___ all the students stopped talking.
A. until B. after
C. if D. because 
[答案] A. 
[析] 这句应译为"直到所有的学生都停止讲话老师才开始上课"。因begin为瞬间动词,所以应用否定句。
10 Betty didn't go to see the film yesterday ___ she was ill.
A. but B. until
C. if D. because 
[答案] D. 
[析] 这里是表示因果关系,所以应用because。因为她病了所以未去看电影。
11 You must start right now, ___ you'll miss the train.
A. for B. and
C. so D. or 
[答案] D. 
[析] or译为"否则"。本句句意为:你必须马上走了,否则要赶不上火车了。
12 ___ he is a child of six, he can read and write.
A. Whose B. If
C. Though D. Because 
[答案] C. 
[析] 这种状语从句在英语中称为让步状语从句,应译为:虽然他才是个6岁的孩子,他却可以读书和写字。
13 I like fish, ___ chicken, ___ eggs.
A. and, and B. and, with
C. /, and D. and, / 
[答案] C. 
[析] 在有若干个名词或动词出现时,每一个词之间只用逗号连接,只在最后两个词之间加and。如:The old man passed the street, went into a shop and bought some food。
14 Take this dictionary with you ___ you may use it in class.
A. when B. in order to
C. but D. so that 
[答案] D. 
[析] so that应译为"为的是"。本句句义为:带上字典,为的是在上课时可能有用。而in order to 其后应接动词不定式,如:Take this dictionary with you in order to use it in class。
15 I hope ___ will be fine tomorrow.
A. it B. what
C. whether D. when 
[答案] A. 
[析] hope后接的是宾语从句,而且宾语从句中少主语,应用it来代替天气。
16 ___ she was not well, I decided to go without her.
A. Though B. As
C. When D. Because of 
[答案] B. 
[析] as这里应译为"由于"。全句意为:由于她不舒服,我决定不带她去了。而because of 其后不能接从句只能接宾语。如: Because of the heavy rain, we decided not to go。
17 My aunt bought me ___ many story books that I spent a lot of time them.
A. such…on B. such…in
C. too…in D so…on 
[答案] D. 
[析] 因many前只能用so来修饰,所以只能选择D选项。而spend…on something 为在某事上花费时间或钱。如:She spent a lot of money on her clothes。
18 Mother was cooking ___ she ___ a knock at the door.
A. when, listen to B. while, listened to
C. while, heard D. when, heard 
[答案] D. 
[析] when在这里应译为:就在那时,那一刻,那一瞬间。
19 Speak slowly, ___ we can understand you.
A. and B. or
C. if D. because 
[答案] A. 
[析] and这里是并列连词,应译为:请讲慢些这样我们就会明白你的意思。
20 You'll learn English well ___ you put your heart into it.
A. if B. so
C. until D. or 
[答案] A. 
[析] 本句译为:如果你将心放在学习上,你就会将英语学好。这里的语法现象是从句中用一般现在时表示将来。
21 I won't let you in ___ you show me your pass.
A. until B. for
C. since D. because 
[答案] A. 
22 She didn't go to school ___ she was ill.
A. why B. because
C. where D. but 
[答案] B. 

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