注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

深圳英语家教

深圳潜龙家教 www.szqljj.com

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

我来自山清水秀,人杰地灵的湖南,从事英语家教教学,追求卓越人生,真情待人,热心助人,欢迎八方来客光临!

网易考拉推荐

初中英语句式复习资料  

2010-01-27 10:40:33|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

初中英语句式复习资料

一、 主 要 句 式
 (一) 知识概要
初中所学的句型一般要分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。陈述句中有肯定句与否定句之分。其中可以分为以下五种:① 主语+不及物动词。如:I arrived at six last night.② 主语+及物动词+宾语,如:I bought a good EnglishChinese Dictionary yesterday.③ 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语,如:Please tell me a story before I go to bed. 这样可加双宾语的句子有buy,tell, give, ask, pass, teach.④ 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语,如:I found it impossible to do it. Please keep the classroom clean and tidy.⑤ 主语+系动词+表语,如:Tom is an American boy. The grass turned green in spring.在初中常见的句型中有There be…句型,表示存在某种事物,如:There is a map on the wall其be动词的形式要与其后面相近的那个名词相一致。要注意的是这种句型加入助动词后,也要保持be动词,不要换用have,如:There is going to be a meeting tomorrow.在句子结构中要注意主谓一致的问题,即句子的主语与谓语动词要相呼应。要注意的有如下几点:① 用and连接两个主语时一般应视为复数,但如一人身兼两职时则要用单数谓语动词形式,如:A singer and dancer is coming to our party. a singer and dancer 既歌唱又可舞的演员。而 a singer and a dancer 则要译为:一位歌唱家和一位舞蹈家。②有些以 s 结尾的名词谓语动词要用单数,如: The news is good (news 为不可数名词)。③ 有量词时应按量词的数量计算;如: This pair of glasses is good My glasses are broken. ④有些形单却意为复数的名词,如: People are coming here 这样的词还有 Police, 如果要讲一个警察时,应讲 a policeman。 两个警察为 two policemen。 又如 a policewoman, two policewomen ⑤ 所有不定代词 each, either, neither, one, the other, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, someone, something … 要作为单数如: Someone is waiting for you在并列句中表示联合关系的连词有: and not only … but also, neither … nor, either … or 如: My sister and my parents are going to the cinema。 表示转折关系的并列连词有: but 和 yet, 如: She is a good student, but she didn't pass the final exam. 又如: I think the news is strange, yet it is true 表示选择关系的连词有:or, either … or,如: Hurry up, or you will be late for school 表示因果关系的并列连词有: for, so 如: They studied very hard, so they all passed the exam在初中范围复合句中主要有状语从句和宾语从句(名词性从句)两种,而定语从句(形容词性从句)要在高中讲述,为了使同学阅读文章方便,我们将在下面另一章予以介绍。我们首先来看宾语从句。① 在及物动词的后面可以接一个名词来充当宾语,如: I knew the man, 而这时也可以用一个句子来充当宾语,如: I knew that he was a good man 这时宾语从句的连接词有 that, (that 只在从句中起联接作用,不在句中充当语法成分,既不是主语也不是宾语,所以在口语中常常被省略。如: I am sure (that) she has passed the exam ②if, whether 它们在宾语从句中只起连接作用,不起语法作用,当作是否讲。从句中有 or not 结构时,要用 whether, 如: I ask him if (whether) he has had his lunch I asks him whether he has had his lunch or not  ③ what 它在宾语从句中除了作连接词外,还要作主语或宾语成份,如: I don't understand what you said (what 作 said 的宾语)。又如: I asked him what made him sick (what 在宾语从句中作主语)。④ who,它也和what一样,在句中除作连接词外,可以充当句中的成份,如:I know who she is looking for? ⑤ whose 如: I want to know whose book this is? ⑥ which 如: Do you know which book is mine?在连接词中还有4个常用的连接副词,① how 它的应用最广,如: how much, how many, how long, how soon, how old …。如: How much does it cost? ② when 它只是连接时间状语,如: Please tell me when the meeting will begin? ③ where 它连接地点状语,如: Where are you from? ④ why 它要连接的是原因状语从句,如: The teacher asked why Tom didn't come to school. 在考试中常见到的考点是:宾语从句的时态与主句时态的呼应问题。① 主句谓语动词如果是现在时或将来时,宾语从句的时态可以是任何所需要的时态, 如: I know he didn't come. 我知道他没来。 I know he will come tomorrow 我知道他明天来。I know he has gone to London 我知道他已去伦敦了。 ② 主句中的谓语动词若是过去时,宾语从句也要用过去时态中的某一种。比如: 一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时。除了在表达宇宙中的客观真理时,不能用现在时态。如: I wanted to know when he would come The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun状语从句主要有时间状语从句,其连接词有:after, before, when, as, as soon as, until (till), while, since, by其中较难掌握的有以下几点:① until (till) 直到,在用 until 表达时间状语的句子中,主句中的动词是要十分小心去选择。如动词是持续性动词,它要用肯定句,如: I studied hard until 12 o'clock last night. 如果动词是瞬间截止性动词,则要用否定句,如: He didn't go to bed until his mother came back ② 由since, for, by, before 来引导的时间状语从句。 since 引导的时间状语是动作的开始时间,如: I have studied English since 1990 而由 by 引导的时间状语通常是动作的结束时间,如: I had learned 25 English songs by the end of last term 而before 则多用于完成时, ago 则多用于一般过去时,如: He had finished his work before twelve yesterday I left my hometown two years ago ③ 在状语从句中用一般现在时或一般过去时表示将来。它们可能是主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时,如: If it rains, they won't go to the park on Sunday 也可以主句是一般过去时,从句用一般过去进行时,如: He said if it rained the next day he would not go to the park 考试中常见的考点有:要学生区别是条件、时间状语从句还是宾语从句,因在宾语从句中该用什么时态用什么时态,如: I want to know if he will come here tomorrow 在宾语从句中的条件状语从句与主句的关系,如: I want to know if it rains he will come here tomorrow在原因状语从句中主要是① because, 应译为"因为"。它表达的因果关系最强,如: He didn't pass the exam because he didn't study hard ② since 应译为"既然",如: Since you were ill yesterday I left some notes on your desk ③ as 应译为"由于",如: As it is too hot we'd better go swimming since 与 as 所表达的因果关系远比 because 弱得多。而 for 表达的因果关系最弱。它不能用于句首,如: He studies hard, for he wants to go to college在比较状语从句中有同级比较 as … as, 如: This book is as good as that one 要注意的有两点:① as … as 中间要用原级而不是比较级。② 用形容词还是副词,如: Mary writes as carefully as Tom 而其否定句为 not as (so) … as, 如: They didn't work so hard as we did, 而不同级比较用比较级加 than, 如: He is younger than I am 要注意的是表示"越来越"这一概念时有两个句型:① 比较级+and+比较级,如: The days are getting longer and longer The little girl is becoming more and more beautiful ② 定冠词 the + 比较级+ the + 比较级,如: The harder you study, the more you can learn方式状语中要注意的是as (连词)与 like (介词)的区别。 as 作为连词其后接从句,如: Please do it as I did it 但后面的句子常作省略,如: Please do it as I 而 like 是介词,其后要接的是宾语,如: Please do it like me结果和目的状语从句主要有 so … that, so that, in order that等几种用法。① so … that用在单数可数名词前,so + 形容词 + a + 名词 + that,如: She is so beautiful a girl that everyone likes her 或用 such + a + 形容词 + 名词 + that, 如: She is such a beautiful girl that everyone likes her ② 在不可数名词或可数名词复数前只能用 such, 如: It is such good weather we want to go for a picnic 又如: They are such good players that they should win the game. ③ 在much, many, few, little 之前只能用so, 如: I have so little money that I can't buy it ④ so … that 之间只有形容词时,则不能用 such, 如: It is so good that I want to buy ⑤ so that 其后接从句,如: I got up earlier so that I could catch the first bus
(二) 正误辨析 
[误] The stories in that book was written many years ago 
[正] The stories in that book were written many years ago. 
[析] 作主语的名词、代词或不定式、动名词,它们往往要带有修饰词,这些词可能是形容词,也可能是短语,但谓语动词还是要取决于这个主语的数,要记住的是一个名词不可能在同一句中作两个不同的语法成份,如: book 作了 of 的介词宾语则不可能再作主语了。
[误] To read many books are good for you 
[正] To read many books is good for you 
[析] 不定式作主语应该看作单数主语。 
[误] What he said are right 
[正] What he said is right 
[析] 从句作主语一定要按单数主语看待。 
[正] The rich is not always happy 
[误] The rich are not always happy 
[析] 形容词+定冠词表示一类人,谓语动词应用复数,如: The young are very interested in study and sports
[误] The school master and writer are coming 
[正] The school master and writer is coming 
[析] 本句应译为:校长兼作家就要来了。而 The school master and the writer are coming 则要译为:校长和一个作家要来了。在英语表达法中确实有 The girl and boy are playing on the grass 这应译为:一个女孩,一个男孩在操场上玩。因为不可能这样两个概念作用在一个人身上。又如: the husband and wife 夫妻二人。
[误] You or she go to get some water for us 
[正] You or she goes to get some water for us 
[析] 由 or 连接的两个主语应以离谓语动词近的那一个计算其数。这样的用法还有 either … or,neither … nor, not only … but also 也有人称作"就近原则"。
[误] The teacher with a lot of students come into the classroom 
[正] The teacher with a lot of students comes into the classroom 
[析] 真正的主语是 the teacher, 而 with 短语是伴随状态,不影响主语的数。
[误] My glasses is broken 
[正] My glasses are broken 
[误] This pair of glasses are good 
[正] This pair of glasses is good 
[误] These kinds of butter is good.
[正] These kinds of butter are good
[析] 英语中有些名词只有复数形式,如: glasses 眼镜, shorts 短裤等。如没有量词在前时,要用复数谓语动词,但有了量词之后则要按量词的单复数计算。
[误] One of the boys are going to take part in the match 
[正] One of the boys is going to take part in the match 
[析] One of 结构应以 one 来计算主语的数。 
[误] Half of the work are done 
[正] Half of the work is done 
[误] Half of the books is read 
[正] Half of the books are read 
[析] 在小于1的数量词作主语时,如: 2 3 ,80%,0.35… + of +名词,这时主语的数应按 of 后面的名词计算。如果名词是不可数名词或可数名词单数,则谓语动词要用单数,如名词是复数则要用复数谓语动词。
[误] Each sides are full of trees 
[正] Each side is full of trees 
[误] Both side is full of trees 
[正] Both sides are full of trees 
[析] each, either 其后都要加单数名词,而 both 后要加复数名词。 如: each, either, another, little, a little, much等作主语时,谓语动词全部要用单数形式。
[误] The boys each has an apple 
[正] The boys each have an apple 
[析] each 作同位语时,不影响句子的主语。
[误] Everyone of us has a ticket for the concert 
[正] Every one of us has a ticket for the concert 
[析] everyone, someone, everybody … 在作主语时都不能加 of 结构。
[误] Girls like dancing very much, but few likes playing football 
[正] Girls like dancing very much, but few like playing football 
[析] few 虽然含意上是"几乎没有",但作主语时仍要当作复数。
[误] The number of the workers in that factory are two hundred 
[正] The number of the workers in that factory is two hundred 
[析] the number of 意为:某某的数字是…… 如: the number of students 学生人数, the number of players 运动员人数。不论数字如何都应看作单数。而 a number of 与 many 意思相同,其后加可数名词复数,谓语动词用复数形式。如: A number of students are playing on the grass
[误] The rest of the students is here 
[正] The rest of the students are here 
[误] The rest of the work are done 
[正] The rest of the work is done 
[析] the rest of 的用法与2/3,一半,80%+ of 的结构一致, of 后面为可数名词复数时用复数谓语动词,为不可数名词或可数名词单数时用单数谓语动词。这样用法还有 lots of, a lot of, plenty of。
[误] The news in today's newspaper are not bad 
[正] The news in today's newspaper is not bad 
[析] 有些以 s 结尾的名词要用作不可数名词,它们是:news, physics, mathematics, thanks, …
[误] The Chinese is kind and friendly 
[正] The Chinese are kind and friendly 
[析] Chinese 作为中文来讲是单数名词,但作为中国人讲是单复同形的名词。如: one Chinese, two Chinese … 而 The Chinese = The people of China 要用复数谓语动词。
[误] This dictionary is too expensive for me Ten dollars are a big sum for me
[正] This dictionary is too expensive for me Ten dollars is a big sum for me
[析] 表示一段时间,一笔金钱,一段距离,都应看作单数名词。
[误] Who are going to take part in our football match? 
[正] Who is going to take part in our football match? 
[析] 用 who 提问时,习惯上用单数谓语动词,但 which 则要视其情况而定,如: which are better these shoeses or those shoes? 又如: which is better this one or that one?
[误] What a hot weather it is! 
[误] How hot the weather it is! 
[正] What hot weather it is! 
[正] How hot the weather is! 
[析] 感叹句是用来表达说话人的喜怒哀乐的感情。它由 what 与 how 作句子的开始,判定是用 what 还是用 how 的最好办法是将它们换为陈述句,比如: What the hot weather it is! 应转换为: It is the hot weather 那么句子的起点是单词 it。 再来看感叹句中 it 前有不可数名词 weather, 则只能用 what。 再看第二句 How hot the weather is! 转为陈述句时为: The weather is hot这时句子的开始单词为 the weather, 再来看感叹句在 the weather 前只有形容词,所以应用 how。 至于是用 what a 还是 what 要看名词的具体情况而定,单数可数名词加 what a 其余的加用 what。
[误] We have to sing this, have we? 
[误] We have to sing this, haven't we? 
[正] We have to sing this, don't we?
[析] 在反意疑问句中除了标准的一些常规外,有一些例外:
Let's go home, shall we?
Let us go home, will you?
She had to leave, didn't she?
Do your homework at once, will you?
There is not much good news in today's newspaper, is there?
Neither of them are right, are they?
I think he will come to the party won't he?
think 后的宾语从句,与其他宾语从句不一样,在初中只有这样一个较特殊的词。这样的句子的反意疑问句的主语要用宾语从句中的主语,其助动词要用宾语从句的助动词,而肯定还是否定要看主句谓语动词而定,如: I don't think he is coming to our party, is he?
[误] I want to know where does he live 
[正] I want to know where he lives 
[析] 宾语从句中一律要用陈述语序,而不用疑问语序。
[误] - I haven't got a ticket for the football match
- Nor I have 
[正] - I haven't got a ticket for the football match
- Nor (Neither) have I 
[析] nor, neither 用在简答否定句中时要采用倒装语序。在肯定句的简答句中则要用so, 如: I do my homework very quickly, So does Mary
[误] Look! Here the bus comes! 
[正] Look! Here comes the bus! 
[误] Look! Here comes he! 
[正] Look! Here he comes 
[析] 在 there, here 打头的句子中,如果主语是名词,则要采用倒装语序;如果是人称代词则用一般语序。
[误] Do you want Mary to go to the cinema with us?
No, I don't hope so 
[正] Do you want Mary to go to the cinema with us?
No, I hope not 
[析] 我不这样想,可用 I don't think so 但 hope 的否定简答句只能用 I hope not 这是习惯用法。但这两个词的肯定简答句形是一样的,如: I think so. I hope so
[误] That is difficult for us to learn English well 
[正] It is difficult for us to learn English well 
[析] It 这里的语法作用是形式主语,而真正的主语是后面的不定式。形式主语和形式宾语都要用 it 而不能用 that, 如: I think it difficult to learn English well it 在这句中是 think 的形式宾语。
(三) 例题解析 
1  There ___ a pencilbox on the desk.
A .is  B. are   C. has   D. have
[答案] A.
[析] There be 句形中的 be 动词要看其后面离它最近的名词而定,如: There are two books and a pencil on the desk 但却可以讲 There is a pencil and two books on the desk
2  Could you tell me ___ ?
A Mrs King where lives B where does Mrs King live 
C where Mrs King lives D Mrs King lives where
[答案] C.
[析] 宾语从句中的疑问句要用陈述语序。
3  Your brother came to see you, ___ ?
A does he B doesn't he C did he D didn't he 
[答案] D.
[析] 前句是肯定句,后面反意疑问句要用否定句,同时 came 为过去时态,所以应用 didn't he
4  It's getting cloudy, ___ ?
A does' it B doesn't it C is it D isn't it
[答案] D.
[析] 要区分's 是 has 还是 is, 这里由 getting 得出's 是is。
5  ___ keep me waiting so long.
A Not B Won't C Don't D Not to
[答案] C.
[析] Don't + 动词原形为祈始句的否定句。
6  Mr Green hasn't been to Beijing, ___ ?
A has he B hasn't he C did he D didn't he
[答案] A.
[析] 此句 has 是助动词与过去分词构成现在完成时态。
7  You have your lunch at school, ___ ?
A have you B haven't you C do you D don't you 
[答案] D.
[析] 这里的 have 是实意动词"吃",而不是助动词。
8  ___ sunny day! Let's go out for a walk.
A How a B How C What a D What
[答案] C.
[析] 这个感叹句是个省略句,其真实的句子应为 What a sunny day it is!
9  - Can you tell me ___ ?  - Sure She's a nurse
A where is your sister B where your sister is 
C what is your sister D what your sister is
[答案] D.
[析] who 问的是姓名,如: Who is he? He is Smith 或 He is my father What 问的是职业,如: What is he? He is a teacher
10  John likes listening to the radio, ___ ?
A does he B doesn't he C doesn't John D does Johe
[答案] B.
[析] 当名词作主语时,反意疑问句应用代词。
11  Neither you nor I ___ on the team.
A are B were C am D is
[答案] C.
[析] 由 neither … nor … 作连接词作主语时,其谓语动词要与相临近的那个主语相呼应。
12  ___ delicious food! I'd like some more.
A what a B How a C What D How
[答案] C.
[析] 因 food 为不可数名词。
13  ___ there a cat under the chair?
A Are B Is C Has D Have
[答案] B.
[析] 这是 there be 句型的疑问句。
14  Could you tell me ___ ?
A when the train will arrive B when the train arrived 
C when did the train arrive D when does the train arrives
[答案] A.
[析] could 用于现在时疑问句表达了口气的委婉,并不是过去时态。且宾语从句要用陈述语句。
15  - ___ bad weather!
- Yes, But it's going to be fine soon, I think
A How B What a C What an D What
[答案] D.
[析] weather 为不可数名词。
16  - Could you tell me ___ ?
- Yes, They ___ to the library
A where are the twins, have been
B where were the twins, have been 
C where the twins are, have gone
D where the twins were, have gone
[答案] C.
[析] have been to 是去过什么地方,而现在回来了。 have gone to 是到某地去了,人现在不在这里。
17  Go and ___ the TV quickly The volleyball match will begin right away.
A turn off B turn down C turn up D turn on 
[答案] D.
[析] 这是个祈使句,它由 and 连接两个动词。注意词组搭配的不同含义。
18  Let's go for some tea, ___ ?
A shall we B will we C do we D don't we
[答案] A.
[析] Let's go …, shall we? Let us go …, will you?这是两个特殊的反意疑问句。
19  Joan's short, ___ ?
A wasn't she B hasn't she C isn't she D doesn't she
[答案] C.
[析] 在此句中应视's为is,而不是 has 或 was。
20  I don't know ___ to read the word.
A which B what C whose D how
[答案] D.
[析] 因不定式 to read 中的 read 是及物动词,已有自己的宾语 the word, 所以应用疑问副词 how。
21  He didn't go to school, ___ he was ill.
A for B but C and D so
[答案] A.
[析] 这里是表示因果的关系,从句表示原因,所以用 for,放于句尾,且常常前面有一个逗号。so 引起的是结果状语从句,如: He was only twelve, so he couldn't join the army
22  The young woman can hardly ride a bike, ___ she?
A doesn't B does C can't D can
[答案] D.
[析] hardly 为否定词,所以应视此句为否定句。其后的反意疑问句应用肯定句。
23  Tom never goes to the cinema on Sundays, ___ ?
A does he B doesn't he C isn't he D is he
[答案] A.
[析] never 也是否定词,所以应将句子看作否定句。
24  Mother said to him, "Don't ___ on football."
A spend too much time B to spend too much time 
C spend too many time D to spend too many time
[答案] A.
[析] time 作为"时间"讲为不可数名词,应用 much 来修饰。当作"次数"讲是可数名词,如 three times 三次,而 Don't … 这一句是祈使句的否定句。
25  Mr White, together with some Japanese friends, ___ visit our school this afternoon.
A are going to B is going to C have D has
[答案] B.
[析] 句子的主语是Mr White, 而together with … 是伴随状况,不影响句子的主语。
26  There is little water in the glass, ___ ?
A is it B is there C isn't it D isn't there
[答案] B.
[析] 这是 there be 句型的反意疑问句。
27  Ampere was thinking about a maths problem, ___ ?
A didn't he B wasn't he C did he D is he
[答案] B.
[析] 这是进行时态的反意疑问句。
28  She had a good time yesterday, ___ she ?
A wasn't B didn't C hasn't D isn't
[答案] B.
[析] had 这里是实意动词而不是助动词。
29  We'll make ___ for you in the front of the car.
A a room B room C rooms D some rooms
[答案] B.
[析] room 此处为不可数名词,意为"地方,空间"。
30  Neither she nor I ___ to the Great wall before.
A has gone B have gone C have been D has been
[答案] C.
[析] 由neither … nor 连接两个主语时,其谓语动词应与相临近的那个主语相呼应。
31  Help me collect these books, ___ ?
A are you B will you C do you D shall you
[答案] B.
[析] 祈使句的反意疑问句应用 will you, 而Let's go 例外,其反意疑问句为 shall we?
32  The number of deer, mountain lions and wild roses
___ change much if people leave things as they are.
A don't B doesn't C isn't D didn't
[答案] B.
[析] the number of 为"……的数量、数目",所以谓语动词用单数形式。而 a number of 要加复数名词,其谓语动词也用复数。
33  She's had breakfast, ___ ?
A is she B isn't she C hasn't she D has she 
[答案] C.
[析] 这里的's应视为 has
34  I wonder ___ .
A whose bicycle is it B it is whose bicycle
C is it whose bicycle D whose bicycle it is
[答案] D.
[析] wonder 后的宾语从句应用陈述语序。
35  It is good for us ___ morning exercises.
A do B to do C did D done
[答案] B.
[析] 这里的 it 是形式主语,而真正的主语是不定式 to do …
36  Peter has sports very often, ___ ?
A does, Peter B doesn't he C doesn't Peter D does he 
[答案] B.
[析] has 这里是实意动词,而主语为名词时其反意疑问句中的主语要用代词。
37  Mr Black said, "Jenny, don't be late tomorrow"
Mr Black told Jenny ___ .
A don't be late tomorrow   B didn't be late tomorrow 
C not be late next morning   D not to be late the next day
[答案] D.
[析] tell 一般要加双宾语,其间接宾语是 Jenny, 直接宾语是不定式。而这里用的是不定式的否定形式。
38  Li Mei read the newspaper to the granny, ___ ?
A does she B didn't she C did she D wasn't she
[答案] B.
[析] read这里是过去时态,因其主语是第三人称单数,而 read 并未加 s 所以是过去时态。(read 的过去时与过去分词都是 read,只不过读音不同)

  评论这张
 
阅读(627)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017