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被动语态讲解  

2010-02-15 11:07:24|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 被动语态讲解

 英语动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。例如:

He wrote a novel.(主语he 是动作wrote 的执行者,是主动语态。)

The classroom was cleaned by him yesterday.(主语the classroom 是动作的承受者,是被动语态。)

 第一节 知识点概述

一、被动语态的构成

英语动词的被动语态由助动词be+及物动词的过去分词构成。助动词be必须与主语的人称和数量保持一致,并有时态的变化。例如:

The man was fooled by the two boys.

The book has been translated into several languages.

 二、被动语态的用法

(1)动作的执行者不知道是谁或难以说明时常用被动语态。例如:

Street lights are often turned on at six in winter.    

The new test book will be used next term.

(2)当动作的承受者比起动作的执行者来说更能引起人们的关心而需要加以强调时,要用被动语态。例如:

This kind of bicycle is not sold in our shop.

The thief was caught by a policeman yesterday.

(3)含有双宾语的句子,主动句中的间接宾语或者直接宾语都可变为被动语态中的一个主语,另一个保留不变。变为主语的若是主动句中的直接宾语在变为间接宾语前则需加介词to 或for。

例如:The pianist gave the pupils some advice.

                    间接宾语 直接宾语

→The pupils were given some advice by the pianist.

→Some advice was given to the pupils by the pianist.

(4)在主动语态句中动词make、have、let、see、watch、hear、feel等后接动词不定式作宾语补足语,动词不定式不加to。但变成被动语态时后面的不定式都须加上to。

例如:The boss made them work ten hours a day.

    →They were made to work ten hours a day.

      A boy saw him enter the house.

         →He was seen to enter the house.

 

三、被动语态的时态

初中英语教材中出现了五种时态的被动语态及带有情态动词的被动语态。

(1)       一般现在时   

构成:助动词be + 动词的过去分词

例如:This kind of car is made in shanghai.

      English is spoken in many countries.

(2)          一般过去时

构成:助动词was/were + 动词的过去分词

例如:The bridge was built in 1992.

      Was this novel written by his father?

(3)          一般将来时

构成:will/be going to do + be + 动词的过去分词

例如:These books are going to be posted tomorrow.

      The baby will be taken good care of in the hospital.

(4)          现在完成时

构成:助动词have/has + been + 动词的过去分词

例如:Has his work been finished?

      We haven’t been invited to the party.

(5)          现在进行时

构成:be + being + 动词的过去分词

例如:A new bridge is being built in my hometown.

      The problem is being discussed by the students.

(6)             带有情态动词的被动语态

构成:情态动词 + be + 动词的过去分词

例如:Can this walkman be repaired here?

Your composition must be handed in tomorrow.

 

第二节 实战演练

一、例题选讲

例1

Jack          (be) in hospital now. He          (send) there yesterday.

 

答案:

Is, was sent

提示:

由于now表示的是现在,会想到用现在进行时,而这里的动词be表示状态,不能用进行时,句子的主语he是动作的承受者,要用被动语态。

例2

Macao          (return) to China on December 20, 1999.

 

答案:

returned

提示:

本句有一个明确的时间状语,要用一般过去时。句意是“1999年12月20日澳门回归祖国”。return既可作及物动词,也能作不及物动词。由于本句立足于“澳门在1999年回归”,不强调“由谁归还”这一动作,所以一般用主动语态。

例3

My bike          (move) away from this side. I asked the man why this          (do).

 

答案:

has been moved, had been done

提示:

第一句主要陈述此事与现在有关,用现在完成时,第二句从句中的动作发生在主句前,主句用一般过去时,从句要用过去完成时。这两句中的动作均有被动意义,要用被动语态。

例4

A lot of water          (waste) every day. It’s a serious problem

 

答案:

is wasted

提示:

表示每天都如此的习惯性状态,用一般现在时,水是“被浪费的”,要用被动语态。

例5

When wet clothes are hung up near a fire, steam can soon be seen          (rise) from them.

 

答案:

rising

提示:

这道题是被动语态,要求用非谓语动词作主语补足语,现在分词和动词不定式都是非谓语动词,两者都可以作宾语补足语或主语补足语,但用法不同。现在分词作补语时,表示动作正在进行。此句是表示水蒸气正在从湿衣服上升起,用现在分词表示。

例6

A strange man was seen          (enter) the office ten minutes ago.

 

答案:

to enter

提示:

这道题也是被动语态,要求用非谓语动词形式填空。用动词不定式作补语表示动作的全过程。句中的“进入”,是十分钟前看到的动作的全过程,用不定式表示。在主动句中省略“to”,在被动句中要加“to”。

 二、复习时需要注意的要点

    (1)由主动语态改为被动语态的步骤:

①主动语态中的宾语变为被动语态句中的主语;

②主动语态句中的动词改为相应的被动语态;

③主动语态句中的主语变为被动语态句中by的宾语。

(2)主动语态句中的谓语动词带有双宾语,即直接宾语和间接宾语时,转换方法有两种:

  ①把间接宾语转化为主语,保留直接宾语

②把直接宾语转化为主语,保留间接宾语。此时,一般需在间接宾语前加适当的介词。

    (3)在短语see sb. do sth. 中,动词see后跟不带to的不定式作宾补。改为被动语态时要加上to。用于这一结构的谓语动词一般是表示知觉的动词如see, hear等,以及使役动词make, let等。

 

第三节 巩固练习

Ⅰ.把下列主动语态改为被动语态:

1.   We often use a recorder in our English class.

2.   They will show a new film next week.

3.   When did they build the house?

4.   I saw the boy enter the room.

5.   Will they show a new film next week?

6.   Have they posted the letter yet?

7.   We often see him help his classmate.

8.   You must turn off the light before you go to be.d

9.   Who is repairing the bike?

10.  The student should learn all the texts by heart.

Ⅱ.选择填空:

1. The reading room ________ yesterday afternoon.

A. cleaned      B. is cleaned     C. was cleaning  D. was cleaned

2. The workers were made ________ ten hours a day.

A. work        B. to work        C. working       D. worked

3. Food ________ in a cool place in summer.

A. must keep   B. mustn’t keep  C. must be kept    D. mustn’t be kept

4. His father ________ to work in Hong Kong 3 years ago.

A. sent        B. was sent      C. has sent       D. has been sent

5. The pen ________ well.

A. writes      B. is written    C. was written    D. writing

6. Great changes ________ in the town since 1988.

A. have taken place             B. have been taken place

C. has taken place              D. has been taken place

7. Our compositions must ________ next Monday.

A. be hand in  B. be handed in  C. handed in      D. be handing in

8. The child will ________ back to his parents next month.

A. sent        B. send          C. be sent        D. be sending

9. ________ his work ________ yet?

A. have…been finished           B. has …been finished

C. has …finished                D. have…finished

10. The classroom ________ now

A. is cleaning                   B. is being cleaning

C. is being cleaned              D. is cleaned

Ⅲ.用适当时态和语态的动词填空:

1.       Can he ________ (speak) English?

2.       What language ________ (speak) in that country?

3.        The film ________ (show) many times since last Sunday.

4.        These TV sets ________ (make) in SiChuan.

5.        It has got so dark. Would you please ________ (turn) on the light?

6.        A new hospital ________ (build) in this area now.

7.        ________ the book ________ (return).

8.        Rice ________ (grow) in the south.

9.        The window ________ (not break) by the boy.

10.   I ________ (tell) he ________ (not come) just now.

 

 

答案

I、

1. A recorder is often used in our English class.

2. A new film will be shown by then next week.

3. When was the house built by them?

4. The boy was seen to enter the room.

5. Will a new film be shown by them next week?

7. He is often seen to help his classmate.

8. The light must be turned off before you go to bed.

9. Who is the bike being repaired by?

 (By whom is the bike being repaired?)

10. All the texts should be learned by heart by the students.

II、

1.D

2.B

3.C

4.B

5.A

6.A

7.B

8.C

9.B

10.C

III、

1. speak         2 is spoken     3. has been shown

4. are made     5. turn            6. is being built

7. Has returned             8. is grown     9. wasn’t broken

10. was told    didn’t come

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