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谈中考英语句型转换  

2010-02-20 19:07:34|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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谈中考英语句型转换
  

        解析同义型、条件型句型转换

  句型转换是要求学生根据所给的句型,按要求或提示完成考题,考查的是学生对句子结构的构成、变化等方面的知识以及对此类知识的运用能力。该题型首先给出一个完整的句子,再给出一个含有几个空白处的句子,根据不同的要求填入适当的词完成句型转换。句型转换涉及到语法知识的各个方面,在做这种题时,应注意时态、语态、人称、数的变化,特殊疑问词的用法,及助动词的用法等。句型转换考题虽然包括各种句式,但通常以两种形式进行考查:同义型句型转换和条件型句型转换。
  
  一、同义型句型转换
  
  同义型句型转换即是用另一种方式来表述与原句相同的句意,也称作同义句转换,主要考查学生对句型及词汇的掌握情况。
  
  【真题引导1】
  I prefer walking there to going by bus.
  I prefer to walk there ___ by bus.
  【答案与解析】
  该题考查prefer...to...与prefer...rather than...这两个句型的转换。前者后接动词时用V.+ing形式,而后者则接不定式,并且rather than后的不定式符号要省略。答案:rather than go。
  【真题引导2】
  It took Mary two weeks to prepare for the exam.
  Mary ____ two weeks ___ for the exam.
  【答案与解析】
  该题考查的是表示“花费时间做某事”的两个句型的转换,take常用的句型是:it takes +时间 + to do...;而spend却是:sb. +spend + 时间 + (in)doing...。答案:spent, in preparing。
  
  【真题引导3】
  I always get up before six o'clock in my school days.
  I __ get up ______ six o'clock in my school days.
  【答案与解析】
  根据原句的意思,只有在第二句的两个空白处分别填入never与after,这样才能表达出与第一句相同的含义。这里要注意always的否定副词是never。答案:never,after。
  
  【真题引导4】
  The children are too tired to walk farther.
  They are_____ tired ____they ____ walk farther.
  【答案与解析】
  含有too...to的简单句常和so...that 引导的复合句互相转换。但是too...to的本身是否定意义,so...that从句要改为否定。答案:so, that, can't。
  
  【真题引导5】
  The girl left her home a few days ago, she has not come back yet.
  The girl has____ from her home for a few days.
  【答案与解析】
  第一句意思为“女孩几天前离开家,她现在还未回来”。根据句意可知应用现在完成时。for a few days表示一段时间,在完成时中只能与延续性动词搭配,而leave是非延续性动词。答案:been away。
  【巩固训练】
  1. They say that Mr. Liu can speak German.
  _____ that Mr. Liu can speak German.
  2. Can you show me the way to the post office?
  Can you tell me _____ get to the post office?
  3. People plant many young trees on both sides of the street each year.
  Many young trees are ____ on ____ sides of the street each year.
  4. My parents left home three days ago.
  They have not come back yet.
  My parents____ from home for three days.
  5. They knew something about it only after you told them.
  They knew______ about it _____ you told them.
  6. If you play basketball here, you may break the windows.
  _____play basketball here, ______you may break the windows.
  7. This is the most enjoyable journey that I have ever heard of.
  I have ______heard of______ an enjoyable journey before.
  8. Hot dogs are not so delicious as sandwiches.
  Hot dogs are______ delicious ___sandwiches.
  9. Her father bought the car three months ago.
  Her father ______the car for three months.
  10. It's good for your health to take exercise often.
  ____ exercise often can make you ______.
  11. All the books cost me 365 yuan.
  I ______ 365 yuan ______ all the books.
  12.The doctor put down the telephone, left his home at once and hurried to Jim's home.
  After the doctor ______ the phone call, he left his home at once and went to Jim's home as _____.
  13. At the end of the meeting his bag was lost.
  He______ his bag when the meeting ______.
  14. I like Backstreet Boys. But he likes F4 better.
  He ______ F4 ______ Backstreet Boys.
  15. Tom spent two hours in mending the bike.
  It _____ two hours______ the bike.
  
 16. He hardly does wrong in his homework.
  He hardly ______ any ______ in his homework.
  17.I will tell you my telephone number after you tell me yours.
  Please tell me your telephone number, ____I____ tell you, ____.
  18. The Indian old lady no longer lived there.
  The Indian old lady ______ live there _____.
  19.Jane got to school earlier than any other students.
  Jane got to school ______ all the students.
  20. My sister prefers reading to going shopping.
  My sister likes______ than going shopping.
  
  Keys:
  1. It's said 2. how, to 3. planted, both 4. have been away 5. nothing, before 6. Don't ,or 7. never, such 8. less, than 9. has had 10. Taking, healthy 11.spent,on12.received,soon aspossible
  13. couldn't find, was over 14. prefers,to15. took Tom, to mend 16. makes, mistakes 17.or, will not, either18.didn't,any more.19.earliest of 20. reading better
  
  二、条件型句型转换
  
  条件型句型转换即是要求根据句子后给出的具体要求变换句型。具体考查内容为:
  1.单数句、复数句之间的转换;
  2.肯定句、否定句、疑问句之间的转换;
  3.简单句、并列句、复合句之间的转换;
  4.陈述句、感叹句、祈使句之间的转换;
  5.主动语态、被动语态之间的转换。
  
  【真题引导1】改为单数句
  There are some old sheep on the farm.
  There is ______ old ______ on the farm.
  【答案与解析】
  sheep的单、复数形式一样,old是元音开头的词,故冠词不能用a 。单数句与复数句转换时,名词、代词要一 一对应互换。注意名词变复数的规律,同时注意主谓的一致性。答案:an, sheep。
  【真题引导2】改为一般疑问句
  He set the alarm clock for seven.
  ______ he ______ the alarm clock for seven?
  【答案与解析】
  一般疑问句及否定句的构成:(1)当谓语动词是be 动词、助动词或情态动词时,将其直接移到句首便可构成一般疑问句,或在其后直接加not构成否定句;(2)当谓语动词是行为动词时,则加助动词do来完成一般疑问句,第三人称单数用does,一般过去时用did,加助动词后应注意其后谓语动词要用原形,这一点要切记。答案:Did, set。
  
  【真题引导3】改为否定句
  Both of the players are very popular in England.
  _____of the players ______very popular in England.
  【答案与解析】
  Both“两者都”为全肯定。其反义词neither “两者都不”为全否定。either“两者之一”是部分否定。另外either和neither作主语,谓语动词应用单数。答案:Neither, is。
  
  【真题引导4】改为反意疑问句
  Sue speaks little French.
  Sue speaks little French, _____?
  【答案与解析】
  反意疑问句应遵循的原则是:前半部分肯定,后半部分否定;前半部分否定,则后半部分肯定。前半部分中有no, little, few, never, hardly, seldom等否定词时,后半部分则用肯定。答案:does she。
  【真题引导5】对画线部分提问
  The bank near the shop is very big.
  ___________________________
  【答案与解析】
  就画线部分提问实际上是将句子改为特殊疑问句。特殊疑问句中的疑问词是根据画线部分来确定的。特殊疑问句的构成:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句。该题中near the shop在句中作the bank的定语,故疑问词应用which。答案:Which bank is very big?
  
  【真题引导6】改为感叹句
   It's raining very heavily.
  ______it is raining!
  【答案与解析】
  本句感叹的是副词heavily,所以要用how,原句中的very应去掉,还应注意句子开头的首字母要大写。答案:How heavily。
  
  【真题引导7】改为被动语态
  They have painted their new house.
  Their new house ______ by them.
  【答案与解析】
  原句是现在完成时态,被动结构要用have been done。在主动变被动时,特别要注意被动语态句中主语的人称、数的变化,这句被动句的主语是第三人称单数,要用has。答案:has been painted。
  
  巩固练习
  ◆ 严建英
  
  Ⅰ.单、复数相互转换
  1. The woman is a nurse.(改为复数句)
  They are all______.
  2. There are some old cars behind the house.(改为单数句)
  There______ old ______ behind the house.
  3. He has a new book.(改为复数句)
  ______new ______.
  4. Are these your English-Chinese dictionaries?(改为单数句)
  ______ your English-Chinese ______?
  5.Is there a sheep in your uncle's farm?(改为复数句)
   _____ there ______ in your uncle's farm?
  
  Ⅱ. 肯定句与疑问句相互转换
  1. Mr. Hu taught her maths last year.(改为一般疑问句)
_____ Mr. Hu ______ her maths last year?
  2.The foreign visitor comes from Russia.(用Australia完成选择疑问句)
   ____ the foreign visitor come from Russia ____?
  3. Tom has lunch at school every day. (改为一般疑问句)
  ____ Tom ______ lunch at school every day?
  4. That dictionary cost him twenty yuan. (改为一般疑问句)
   ____ that dictionary ______ him twenty yuan?
  5. Don't you think her radio is too loud? (作肯定回答)
  ___, I ______.
  
  Ⅲ. 完成反意疑问句
  1. You've never been out of China before, _____?
  2. You came here together, ______?
  3. There're more than ten pandas on the hill,____?
  4. Peter could hardly see the words on the blackboard, ____?
  5. Don't look out of the window, ______?
  6. I don't think you can answer this question,_____?
  7. Let's ask our teacher for help, _____?
  8. Everything goes well, _____?
  9. She isn't the best one in the class, ______?
  10. You like listening to soft music, ______?
  
  Ⅳ. 肯定句与否定句相互转换
  1. He has already finished his homework.(改为否定句)
  He ______ finished his homework ______.
  2. Both of his parents were pleased with the result.(改为完全否定句)
   _____ pleased with the result.
  3. Don't let him go boating today!(改为肯定句)
  _____ go boating today.
  4. You'd better take it to your office.(改为否定句)
  You'd better_____ it to your office.
  5. The children weren't playing on the playground.(改为肯定句)
  The children______ on the playground.
  6. All of us want him to rest.(改为完全否定句)
   _____ of us ______ him to rest.
  7. Mary does her homework on Sundays. ( 改为否定句)
  Mary ______ her homework on Sundays.
  8. Meimei has to look after her little brother at weekends. (改为否定句)
  Meimei______ to look after her little brother at weekends.
  9. I think you are right.(改为否定句)
  I ______ think you ______ right.
  10. She isn't going to wash anything on Sunday.(改为肯定句)
  She ______ going to wash ______ on Sunday.
  
  Ⅴ. 简单句、并列句、复合句相互转换
  1. The water was so dirty that we couldn't drink it.(改为简单句)
   The water was ______ dirty for us ______ drink.
  2. Does the shop close at six every day?Do you know?(两句合并为一句)
   Do you know ___ the shop ____ at six every day?
  3. The question isn't easy enough for them to answer.(改为复合句)
  The question is ______ that they ___ .
  4. I really don't know which book I should choose.(改为简单句)
  I really don't know_____.
  5. I don't know when we shall meet again. ( 改为简单句)
  I don't know when ______ again.
  6. The man is very strong and he can carry the heavy bag. (改为简单句)
   The man is _______ to carry the heavy bag.
  7."Does the girl need any help?" he asked me.(改为复合句)
   He asked me ______ the girl ______ some help.
  8. I don't know what to do next.(改为复合句)
   I don't know what ______ next.
  9. George has two cabbages. Mary has only one.(用比较级改写句子)
   George has ______ cabbages ______ Mary.
  10. We won't have any lessons tomorrow because we'll have the sports meeting.(改为简单句)
  We won't have any lessons tomorrow _____the sports meeting.
  
  Ⅵ. 陈述句与感叹句相互转换
  A.改为感叹句
  1. The film is very interesting.
   ________ the film is!
  2. English is very useful.
  _____ useful subject English is!
  3. These flowers are so beautiful.
  ______ these flowers are!
  4. The children are singing and dancing happily.
   ______ the children are singing and dancing!
  5. They are running fast.
   ______they are running!
  6. Her sister is a very lovely girl.
  (1) ______ lovely girl her sister is!
  (2) _____ her sister is !
  
  B.改为陈述句
  7. How beautiful these flowers are!
  ______ so beautiful flowers.
  8. What a nice box it is!
  The box _____.
  9. How bright your dictionary is!
  Your dictionary is______.
  10. How hard the workers are working!
  The workers are ______.
  
  Ⅶ. 陈述句与祈使句相互转换
  1. If you don't work hard, you won't pass the exam next time.(改为祈使句)
  ____, ______ you will fail the exam next time.
  2. Don't make any noise.(改为陈述句)
  _____ make any noise.
  3. Will you please read after me? (改为祈使句)
  ____________________________.
  4. Don't look out of the window. (改为反意疑问句)
  Don't look out of the window, _____?
  5. Tom is sitting on the desk.(改为否定祈使句)
  _____ on the desk, ______.
  6. Don't let him go boating today? (改为肯定句)
  ______ go boating Today!
  7. Do it like this, please.(改为否定句)
  ______ it like this, please.
  8. Hurry up, and you'll catch the early bus.(改为陈述句)
  _____, you'll catch the early bus.
  9. Let us go and see what has happened.(完成反意疑问句)
  Let us go and see what has happened,_____?
  10.If you let him try and then he will know all about it.(改为祈使句)
  ______ ,______ he'll know all about it.
  
  Ⅷ. 主动语态与被动语态相互转换
  A.改为被动语态
  1. We call maths the language of science.
  Maths _____the language of science.
  2. Where did they plant trees?
  Where ______ trees ______?
  3. The workers built the Green Great Wall across the northern part of the country.
  The Green Great Wall ________ across the northern part of the country.
  4. The teacher made the students copy the text.
  The students ______________ copy the text.
  5. They produce silk in Suzhou.
  Silk _________ in Suzhou.
  6. They built a bridge between the two islands last year.
  A bridge __________ between the two islands last year.
  
  B.改为主动语态
  7. A birthday party will be had tomorrow.
  We ______a birthday party tomorrow.
  8. John was seen to cross the street just now by someone.
  Someone saw John _____the street just now.
  9. Can another way be thought of to keep your wine or water warm?
  Can ________ another way to keep your wine or water warm?
  10. Too many trees are still being cut down in the USA.
  ___are still____ down too many trees in the USA.
  
  Ⅸ. 对划线部分提问
  1. Jim has stayed in the college for five years.
  ______ has Jim stayed in the college?
  2. The twin brothers get on very well.
  _____ the twin brothers get on?
  3. My foreign friends will arrive in half an hour.
  ______ will your foreign friends arrive?
  4. The car near the river is mine.
  ______ is yours?
  5. It's very wet and hot today.
  _____ the weather ______ today?
  6. He is looking for a pair of black shoes.
  _____ is he ______?
  7. He went to the station to meet the twins last Wednesday.
  ____ did he ____to the station to meet the twins?
  8. Jack has been to Hong Kong only once.
  How ______ has Jack been to Hong Kong?
  9. We have a class meeting once a week.
  ____________ have a class meeting.
  10. They came to ask for help.
  ___ did they come ______?
  
  Keys:
  Ⅰ.
  1. women nurses 2. is an, car 3. They have, books
  4. Is this, dictionary5. Are, any sheep
  
  Ⅱ.
  1. Did, teach2. Does, or Australia 3. does, have
  4. Did cost 5. Yes, do
  
  Ⅲ.
  1. have you 2. didn't you 3. aren't there
  4. could he5. will you 6. can you
  7. shall we8. doesn't it 9. is she
  10. don't you
  
  Ⅳ.
  1. hasn't, yet2. Neither of his parents was
  3. Let him4. not take 5. were playing
  6. None, want7. doesn't do 8. doesn't have
  9. don't, are 10. is, something
  
  Ⅴ.
  1. too, to2. if, closes3. so difficult, can't answer
  4. which book to choose 5. to meet you 6. strong enough
  7. if, needed8. I'll do9. more, than
  10. because of
  
  Ⅵ.
  1. How interesting2. What a 3. How beautiful
  4. How happily 5. How fast6. (1)What a (2)How lovely
  7. These are 8. is very nice 9.very bright
  10. working hard
  
  Ⅶ.
  1. Work hard, or 2. You mustn't . 3. Please read after me.
  4. will you 5. Don't sit, Tom6. Let him
  7. Don't do8. If you hurry up 9. will you
  10. Let him try, and
  
  Ⅷ.
  1.is called 2.were, planted3.was built
  4.Were made to 5. is produced 6. was built
  7. will have 8. to cross 9. you think of
  10. People/ They , cutting
  
  Ⅸ.
  1. How long  2. How do 3. How soon
  4. Which car  5. What's, like   6. What, doing
  7. When, go  8. many times   9. How often do you
  10. What, for

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