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过去完成时  

2010-02-25 10:22:09|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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       过去完成时

        过去完成时在初中阶段虽然不是必考的内容,但在学习过程中却经常出现,因此对它进行初步的了解是非常必要的。
一、构成
        过去完成时由“助动词had+过去分词”构成,had没有人称和数的变化,可以帮助构成疑问句和否定句。如:
He had lived in Shanghai for three years before he came here.
How many English words had you learned by the end of last week?
I had not gone much farther before I caught them up.
二、基本用法
        过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。它表示动作发生的时间是“过去的过去”。因此,过去完成时是一个相对的时态,它不能离开过去时间而独立存在。如:
【正】I had finished my homework before supper.
【误】I had finished my homework.(没有任何时间可以作参照进行对比)
【正】They became good friends after they had talked heart to heart.
【误】They had become good friends after they talked heart to heart.(动作的先后与时态不符)
【注】
1. 过去完成时常常用于间接引语中,代替现在完成时或一般过去时。如:

He said, “I have returned the book to the library.”→

He told me that he had returned the book to the library.

My teacher asked me, “What did you do with your money?” →

My teacher asked me what I had done with my money.

2. 如不是强调动作先后、因果等关系,常可用一般过去时代替过去完成时。如:

Did you find the pen you lost?

The boy was sorry for what he said.

3. 过去完成时有时可用来表示一种未实现的愿望或想法。如:

I had thought the room to be empty but found it full.

I had hoped he could help me, but he also ran out of money.

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