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2010中考英语总复习代词  

2010-02-27 17:31:04|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2010中考英语总复习3词法代词
三、 代词
(一) 知识概要
英语中代词可以分为人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词。人称代词主要有主格和宾格之别。请看下表
人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们 
主格 i you  he she it we you they
宾格 me you him her it  us you them
物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种。请看下表
人称 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他们的
形容词性 my  your  his her its ours your they
名词性 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs
  反身代词可见下表
人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们 
反身代词 myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourself themselves
指示代词主要有this, that, these, those
疑问代词有:who, whom whose, what, which,
还有疑问副词when, how, where, why。
不定代词在初中课本中主要有some, any, many, much, each, neither, other, another, all, both, one, none, either…
(二) 正误辨析
[误]Tom's mother is taller than my.
[正]Tom's mother is taller than mine.
[析]形容词性物主代词可以作定语,也就是讲它可以作形容词,如:my book,而这句话的意思是:汤姆的妈妈比我的妈妈高。比较的对象是my mother,也就是mine。
[误]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish them.
[正]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish it.
[析]在应用代词时,要注意人称,格与数的一致性。这里it所代替的是不可数名词homework, 所以应用it。
[误]He and you should go to the library to return the books.
[正]You and he should go to the library to return the books.
[析]这主要是英语习惯上的用法。当两个以上的人称代词并列时其排列顺序一般为you, he, she, I,而复数时为we, you, they:如男女并列时,应先男后女,如:He and she …如果在表示不好意思,承担责任时,单数时用,I, he, she, you, 复数时用They, you, we, 如:Tom and I are good friends.
You, he and I must go to play the game for our team this afternoon.
We, you and they have been there before.
I, he and you have to pay for it.
[误]He or his brother is doing their homework.
[正]He or his brother is doing his homework.
[析]由either…or, neither…nor, or 连接两个主语时,如果两主语是单数时,用单数代词,如两主语是复数时,用复数代词,如:Either teachers or students want to do their best to help the old man.如是一单一复两名词时,一般将单数名词放在前,复数名词放在后,要用复数代词,如:The teacher or his students will clean their classroom together.
[误]His brother is taller than him.
[正]His brother is taller than he.
[析]than是连词,其后应视为省略句,than he is.所以要注意区分其主格与宾格的用法。
I like you as much as she.
[正]I like you as much as her.
[析]as…as 其后也应看作是省略句。应为as I like her.所以应用宾格。而第一句应译为我像她那样喜欢你。两句语法都是对的但含义不同。
[误]Myself did it yesterday.
[正]I myself did it yesterday.
[正]I did it myself yesterday.
[析]反身代词不可作主语,但可以用作主语的同位语。
[误]Take care of ourselves.
[正]Take care of yourselves .(yourself)
[析]祈始句的主语应看作第二人称you.
[误]Please bring your daughter with yourself.
[正]Please bring your daughter with you.
[析]反身代词不能作介词宾语,除非是由不及物动词与介词组成的动词短语,如: The old woman spoke to herself.
[误]Make yourself home.
[正]Make yourself at home.
[析]这是英语中的习惯用法,意为"像在家里一样"。这样的用法还有:
enjoy oneself 玩得开心make yourself at home 像在家中一样
help yourself to something 自己拿某物lost oneself 迷路
seat oneself 就坐dress oneself 穿衣
[误]- Who's this speaking.- That's Mary.
[正]- Who's that speaking.- This is Mary.
[析]在电话用语中,this指讲话人自己,而that指对方。
[误]The days in summer are longer than this in winter.
[正]The days in summer are longer than those in winter.
[析]在比较句中往往为了避免重复,可以用that或those取代前面提到的事物,如是单数时用that,复数时用those,如:The weather in Beijing is hotter than that in Chang Chun.
[误]It is so a good book that everyone likes to read.
[正]It is such a good book that everyone likes to read.
[正]It is so good a book that everyone likes to read.
[析]在可数名词单数时可用so+形容词+不定冠词+名词+that从句,也可用such+不定冠词+形容词+that从句。在不可数名词或可数名词复数时,只用such, 如:It is such good weather that I want to go swimming. They are such good books that I want to buy them all.在many, much, few, little这4个词前仅能用so,如: She has so much money that she can buy everything she wants.而在so与that之间仅存形容词时,则不能用such,如:She is so sweet that everyone likes her.
[误]I want to buy a same dictionary as yours.
[正]I want to buy the same dictionary as yours.
[析]same与定冠词the是固定搭配不可更改。这样的用法还有all the same(仍然)。
[误]- I hope she might pass the exam.- I don't hope so.
[正]- I hope she might pass the exam.- I hope not.
[析]在作肯定回答时,I think so. I hope so. I believe so.但作否定回答时为:I don't think so. I hope/believe not.
[误]- He studied very hard this term.- So she did.
[正]- He studied very hard this term.- So did she.
[误]- English is difficult to learn.- So is it.
[正]- English is difficult to learn.- So it is.
[析]在对话中如果某一动作同时适用于两个主语,这时在答语中要用缩写且要用倒装句。如第一组句,即studied hard既适用于he,也适用于she.但答语仅仅是对前句的重复,即仅仅是第一句的缩写时则不要用倒装句。如第二组句子为:英语难学。答语为:是的,难学。这时缩写的答语不要用倒装句。
[误]Everyone should do one's best.
[正]Everyone should do his best.
[析]one作代词时,它的复数形式是ones,所有格形式是one's,反身代词为oneself.如果讲One should do one's best.则是对句。如果one与别的词组成其他词,如: someone, anyone, everyone或only one 则要用his/her,来作其所有格形式。
[误]- Who won the game?- None.
[正]- Who won the game?- No one.
[析]由who提问的句子的否定回答中的简略说法是no one,而由How many提问的句子的否定回答中的简略语是None.如:How many books are there? None.
[误]There are many trees on either sides of the street.
[正]There are many trees on either side of the street.
[正]There are many trees on both sides of the street.
[析]either作代词时由两个含意,其一是两者中随便哪一个,如:You can take either.其二是两者中的每一个。但要注意的是either后要加单数名词,如果作主语则谓语动词也要用单数形式。
[误]Either you or I are right.
[正]Either you or I am right.
[析]在either…or,或neither…nor连接两个主语时,其谓语动词要与和其相近的那个主语相配。
[误]I have three sisters. Neither of them is a doctor.
[正]I have three sisters. None of them is a doctor.
[析]neither用于两者中无一是,而none则用于多于两者中的人或事物无一是。
[误]He doesn't like Beijing opera. I don't like too.
[正]He doesn't like Beijing opera, I don't like either.
[析]either作为"也"讲时,要用于否定句中,而too则用于肯定句中。
[误]We like both this little boy.
[正]We both like this little boy.
[析]both作同位语时,它在句中的位置有:在be动词之后,如:We are both students.在实意动词之前,如:The parents both want to go to the cinema.用于第一助动词之后,如:We have both read these English novels.使用时要注意以下句子的实际含意:Both of us are not right.应译为:我们俩不都对。Neither of us is right.才应译为:我俩都不对。又如:I can't give you both of the books.意为:两本书我不能全给你,而I can't give you either of the books.才为:两本书我全不能给你。
[误]We each has a ticket for the concert.
[正]We each have a ticket for the concert.
[析]each作句子主语时其谓语动词要用单数形式,如:Each of us wants to learn English well,但each作同位语时,则应以原名词的数为准。
[误]Every of us has to pass the exam.
[正]Each of us has to pass the exam.
[析]every只可作形容词,不可作代词,而each既可作形容词,又可作代词,在作形容词时each侧重强调个体,而every 则侧重于全体。
[误]Everyone of us should do housework two hours a day.
[正]Every one of us should do housework two hours a day.
[析]everyone不可与of结构相连接使用,而every one则可以这样用。
[误]I should read English everyday.
[正]I should read English every day.
[析]要注意的是every day是"每天",而everyday则是形容词为"日常的"。如:everyday English日常英语,everyday life日常生活。
[误]There are trees on every sides of the street.
[正]There are trees on each side of the street.                                       
[析]every用于三者或三者以上的每一个,而each用于二者或二者以上的每一个。因为街道只有两侧,所以只能用each而不能用every.
[误]All my parents are engineers.
[正]Both my parents are engineers.
[析]all用于三者或三者以上的全部,而both 则用于两者的全部。
[误]All of students might make some mistakes.
[正]All of the students might make some mistakes.
[正]All students might make some mistakes.
[析]非特指的名词前可用all但不可用all of结构,也就是讲all of结构后面的名词前一定要有定冠词。其他与all有关的习惯用法还有:
all the year round, all week, all day, all winter
[误]The all village was flooded.
[正]All the village was flooded.
[析]all作修饰语时要用在所有修饰词之前。
[误]The post office is on other side of the street.
[正]The post office is on the other side of the street.
[析]单数可数名词如在泛指某一个时用another,而特指时则要用the other,因街道只有两边,而不在这边必定是在另一边,所以要用特指。请参考下表的用法以便于记忆。
  单数 复数
泛指 another形容词 作定语 作名词
another代词 other others
特指 the other形容词
the other代词
 the other the others
[误]There are ten students here Where are the others students?
[正]There are ten students here.Where are the others?
[正]There are ten students here Where are the other students?
[析]the others=the other students.
[误]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, another is a doctor.
[正]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, the other is a doctor.
[析]another用于泛指,如:Is it far from here to the station?I'm sorry. I have no idea. One may say it is quite near; another may say it is far from here.但在特指时则要用the other.它可以用作定语,the other one,也可以用作代词the other,但the other用作代词时它的含意一定是单数。如果指三者或者三者以上的情况时,则要用one…another…the other.或者one…a second…the third…
[误]Some people like sports. The others like reading.
[正]Some people like sports. Others like reading.
[析]在泛指的复数名词前用some…others…others…来表示某些人……某些人……某些人……。
[误]Please remember to water the flowers each other day.
[正]Please remember to water the flowers every other day.
[析]every other day为每隔一天。是习惯用法,不要随意改动。又如:on the other hand另一方面。
[误]Many know him, but few likes him.
[正]Many know him, but few like him.
[析]few用于可数名词,意为几乎没有,但few作主语时谓语动词则要用复数形式,而a few为有一些。
[误]You have few friends, haven't you?
[正]You have few friends, have you?
[析]little与few用于句中时,均要按否定句看待。
[误]Much of what you said are true.
[正]Much of what you said is true.
[析]much用于不可数名词,作主语时用单数谓语动词。而many用于可数名词,它作主语时用复数形式的谓语动词。
[误]This room is enough large for the students to live in.
[正]This room is large enough for the students to live in.
[析]enough 可以用作代词,如:There is enough of the food. 又如:Enough has been done for the work,但enough 还可以作形容词来修饰名词,这时enough可以放在名词之前,也可放在名词之后,如:money enough 与enough money都是对的。但当enough作副词修饰形容词时,则只能置于形容词之后了。
[误]I want any books to read. Do you have any?
[正]I want some books to read. Do you have any?
[析]按照语法any用于疑问句和否定句,而some用于肯定句。
[误]Would you like any thing to drink?
[正]Would you like something to drink?
[析]在由would you like发出的问句中,表达了说话者真心实意要为对方提供些饮料,或在说话者想得到对方的肯定答复时,在疑问句中要用some而不用any。
[误]Someone want to meet you.
[正]Someone wants to meet you.
[析]不定代词应被看作单数,即使用and连接两个不定代词,也要看作单数,如:Anyone and everyone has the right. 任何人,每一个人都有这样的权力。
[误]New York is much colder in winter than before.
[正]It is much colder in New York in winter than before.
[析]it常常用在英文的句子中来代表时间、距离、天气、自然现象,或用在句中作形式主语或宾语,如:
It is ten o'clock now. (代时间)
It is far from here to the airport. (代距离)
It is very hot.(代天气)
It is very difficult to learn English well. (作形式主语)
We found it very difficult to answer the question. (作形式宾语)
[误]Be careful. Don't drink too many.
[正]Be careful. Don't drink too much.
[析]这里much所代的应是饮料或水,所以应为不可数名词。 
(三) 例题解析
1 These are ___books. Yours are over there.
A I   B  my   C  me   D mine
[答案]B.
[析]这里应用形容词性物主代词。
2 -___  is she?
- She is a teacher.
A   What    B  How    C  Who    D   Where
[答案]A.
[析]这里的四个疑问词放在问句中全都成立,但其意义不同。What is she?应译为"她的工作是什么?"或"她是做什么的?"而How is she?应译为"她身体如何?"而Who is she?应译为"她是谁?"其答语应为"她叫什么名字。"而Where is she?应为"她在什么地方?"由答语决定了这道题的选择。
3___ is wrong with my watch. It has stopped___.
A  Something, working   B  Something, to work
C    Any thing, working   D Anything, to work
[答案]A.
[析]因为是肯定句所以应用Something,其后由于表停止工作了,则stop后要用动名词。
4  Mary, help ___to the bananas, please.
A  you   B your   C  yourself   D yourselves
[答案]C.
[析]help oneself to something为"自己拿某物"。yourself为"你一个人",而yourselves为"你们"。
5 -___ do you go to school every day?
- By bus.
A  How  B  Why    C   When    D   Where
[答案]A.
[析]这题的答案是由问句决定的。
6  My skirt is___  popular than___.
A    much, her   B  much, hers     C   more, her      D  more, hers
[答案]D.
[析]因句中有than,所以应选用比较级,而than后要选用名词性物主代词。
7 - Can you speak English?
- Yes, but only___.
A  few    B  a few     C   little     D    a little
[答案]D.
[析]因会讲某种语言的多少要用a little,把它看作不可数名词对待,此答语为:是的,但仅仅会讲一点。
8   Mr. Smith is an old friend of___.
A  I        B  me     C  my    D mine
[答案]D.
[析]这里应选名词性物主代词,这也是英语的一种习惯用法,而不要选择my。
9 " ___do you hear from your parents?"
"About once a month."
A How long    B   How many
C How often  D   How much
[答案]C.
[析]How often问的是某一动作发生的频率,即在单位时间内发生多少次。
10  Mr Green wouldn't say ___at the meeting.
A  everything   B  nothing     C  anything   D  something
[答案]C.
[析]在否定句中应用anything
11 "Mum, Ann's coming tonight. Let's give her ___to eat."
"Good idea!"
A   anything nice    B nice anything
C   something nice  D nice something
[答案]C.
[析]肯定句中用something而不用anything,不定代词的修饰词应放其后而不要放在其前面。
12 - When shall we meet, this evening or tomorrow evening?
- I don't mind. ___time is OK.
A   Some   B  Neither   C  Either   D  Both
[答案]C.
[析]因如选用both则名词要用复数名词,也要用复数谓语动词,由于答语前有I don't mind 则决定不能选择neither.
13 This is not her kite, but___.
A  he's  B   him  C   he    D   his
[答案]D.
[析]要注意"他的"名词性物主代词与形容词性物主代词是同形的。
14 Don't worry, Mum! ___ news is good news. I'm sure daddy will come back soon.
A   No    B  Many     C Those    D Two
[答案]A.
[析]这是一条谚语,即没有消息就是好消息。 
15 Mary has six apples. Her brother has three. She has ___apples than he.
A  few B  many  C  more    D    fewer
[答案]C.
[析]由于是比较级,根据题意应选"多于"而不是"少于"。 
16 There isn't ___in today's newspaper.
A anything interesting
B something interesting
C nothing interesting
D interesting anything
[答案]A.
[析]由于句子是否定句,应选择anything,而且不定代词的修饰语应放在其后面。
17 September 10th is___ Day?
A  Teacher      B Teachers     C Teacher's    D Teachers'
[答案]D.
[析]教师节Teachers' Day,儿童节 Children's Day, 妇女节 Women's Day
18 - In England, people eat a lot of "takeaway" food. What about people in your country?
-___
A So we do.  B We do so.  C So do we.   D We so do.
[答案]C.
[析]在答语中用简略方式表达上文的一个动作同样适用于另一个主语时,则要采用倒装句,但如果仅仅是对上句的重复则不要倒装。
19 - Shall we go into that shop and have a look?
- Sorry. I won't. I have ___to do there.
A  everything     B anything     C  something   D nothing
[答案]D.
[析]这个答案的选择应由上下两句对话内容作出决定。
20- Oh, dear! Who broke the glass?
-___ Sam ___Bruce. It was the cat.
A Both, and    B Not, but     C  Neither, nor   D Either, or
[答案]C.
[析]neither…nor意为既不……也不……
21 The students are having a good time in the park. Some are drawing by the lake.___are climbing the hill.
A Others  B Other  C Another  D The other

[答案]A.
[析]这里因为是代替复数名词,所以应用名词性的复数代名词。
22 She is not a nurse. I'm not___.
A  also  B either C neither   D too
[答案]B.
[析]在否定句中该用either,而不用too和also.
23 I have two pencils. One is red,___ is blue.
A  the other   B another     C others  D the others
[答案]A.
[析]两者中的另一个应为特指。而且应为单数形式的代名词。而another是泛指单数代名词。others是泛指复数代名词,而the others是特指复数代名词。
24 Sorry, I can't answer your question.
I know ___about the subject.
A little   B a little       C few     D a few
[答案]A.
[析]中文讲我对此知道的不多,而英文中要用little。其含意为否定句。
25 My sister doesn't like skating___.
A So do I           B So I don't
C Neither I don't  D  Neither do I
[答案]D.
[析]这是表达上面否定句中的动作,也同样不适合
于第二个人。所以要用neither,并要采用倒装句。
26 Yesterday morning there were only three boys in our room,___.
A  you, he and I      B  I, you and he
C  he, I and you      D you, I and he
[答案]A.
[析]这是若干人称代词并列时的顺序问题。请参看辨析中的例子。
27 All the students are busy,  so___of   them will go to the concert.
A many     B little    C a few  D few
[答案]D.
[析]student为可数名词。
28 The teacher gave ___student a new book.
A nobody   B both   C each     D any
[答案]C.
[析]both其后的名词应为复数,而any用于疑问句和否定句中只有each可以修饰单数可数名词。
29 Black is neither a teacher ___a worker.
A or    B either     C nor     D and
[答案]C.
[析]neither…nor为"既不……也不……"的固定搭配。
30 Our teacher gave us___on studying.
A many advices     B some advices
C an advice           D some advice
[答案]D.
[析]advice为不可数名词。some可用于可数或不可数名词之前。
31 There are two foreign friends in the park. One ___is from Japan, is from America.
A other    B others       C the other      D the others
[答案]C.
[析]因为是两者中的一个,所以另一个应用单数特指代词。
32 Are there ___on the table?
A some cups     B any cup      C  some cup       D   any cups
[答案]D.
[析]此句是疑问句,应用any cups, 因提问时的be动词用的是are。
33 I've just bought five stamps. One is a German stamp, ___are American stamps.
A the other    B the others     C other     D others
[答案]B.
[析]此空应填入主语。又因其范围已定,所以应选特指的代名词。the other只能用作单数,而others是泛指复数代名词,故只能选B。
34 It was___ fine day that they went to the park.
A a so   B so a      C such a     D a such
[答案]C.
[析]在单数可数名词前可以有两种表达法,即such+不定冠词+形容词+可数名词单数形式,如:such a good day,或者用so加形容词+不定冠词+可数名词单数,如:so good a day.
35 At that time the train was slow and noisy. So___people liked taking trains.
A little    B  a little      C  few      D  a few
[答案]C.
[析]这是英文的表达法与中文不同之处。中文讲只有少数人喜欢坐火车,英文要选用"few"。
36 We must help and understand each___.
A other  B another    C others   D  the other
[答案]A.
[析]each other意为"互相",是习惯用语。
37 ___is difficult to walk on the moon.
A Man     B  One      C  That       D  It
[答案]D.
[析]这里的真正主语应为不定式to walk on the moon.而形式主语只能用it.
38 Jane has sent several letters, but ___of them have been answered.
A all    B both    C either   D  none
[答案]D.
[析]several letters意为"若干信件",应看作多于两者,则在A、D中作选择,仅D符合句意。
39 I don't know ___about the new headmaster.
A something     B everything     C nothing     D anything
[答案]D.
[析]否定句中应用anything.
40___ of the students in the whole class could do this physics question.
A No    B  None    C Not     D  Neither
[答案]B.

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