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初三语法现在完成时用法与练习  

2010-03-13 08:58:28|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初三语法现在完成时用法与练习

现在完成时的构成:助动词have(has)+ 过去分词,
1.表示过去发生或完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。例如:
I have just cleaned my clothes. 我刚洗过衣服。
(“洗衣服”是发生在过去的动作,对现在造成的结果是“衣服干净了”)
现在完成时常用的时间状语有: already (”已经”  用于肯定句的中间和末尾处)
never  (“从不”  用于中间处)
ever (”曾经”  用于疑问句和肯定句的中间处)
just  (“刚刚”  用于中间处)
yet  (“已经”  用于疑问句的末尾处 / “还”  用于否定句的末尾处)
或不加任何的时间状语,但不能和表示过去的时间状语连用.

现在完成时与一般过去时的用法比较
现在完成时表示过去的动作一直延续到现在甚至会继续下去或表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响;一般过去时表示动作发生的时间在过去。试比较:
The plane has arrived . 飞机已经来了。(说明现在的情况:飞机在这儿)
The plane arrived a quarter ago. 飞机是一刻中以前来的。(强调动作发生的时间在过去)
I have taught here for fifteen years. 我在这儿已经教了十五年。(表示十五年前的动作一直延续到现在,还可能会继续。)
I taught here for a year. 我过去在这儿教过一年。(表示“我“现在已经不在这儿任教了)

练习:
I.翻译下列句子:
你曾经吃过鱼和薯条吗?

我刚刚丢了我的化学书。

我以前从来没去过那个农场。

他已经吃过午饭了。

你已经看过这部电影了吗?

我哥哥还没回来。

我上星期看过这部电影。

在1992年他住在这里。

II. 用过去时或现在完成时填空:
1. “_________ you __________ (have) lunch ?”    “Yes.”
  “When ________ you __________ (have) it?”  “I ____________ (have) it at 12:00.”
2. “_________ you __________ (write) a letter to your aunt yet?”
  “Yes, I ___________.  I ________________ (write) one last week.”
3. “_________ he ___________ (finish) his homework?”    “Not yet.”
4. “_________ they ever __________ (be) abroad?”     “Yes, just once.”
5. Your father _________ just ___________ (finish) his work.
6. Your father _________ (finish) his work just now.
7. Last term I __________ (learn) many English words.
8. They ____________ (not read) the interesting books yet.
9. He _____________ never ____________ (go) to the science museum.
10. ____________ you ever ____________ (drink) coke?
11. “____________ you _____________ (buy) a dictionary? “  “Yes, I __________ .”
   “Where __________ you _____________ (buy) it?”  “ I ___________ (buy) it in a bookstore.”
   “When ___________ you _____________ (buy) it?”   “ Yesterday.”

Since 和 for 的用法
表示过去已经开始持续到现在的动作或状态常用的时间状语有:for, since, how long, so far, these days等。
Since+过去点的时间,for+一段时间(数词+量词),此划线部分用how long提问。

一、since短语或从句表示过去的动作延续至今,since之后的时间为一点。 如:
Mr. Smith has worked here since 1984. 1984年以来,史密斯先生一直在这工作。
He’s learned about 5,000 English words since he went to college. 他上大学以来大约学了五千个英语单词。

二、for短语表示动作延续多长时间,for的宾语为时间段。 如:
We have known each other for twenty years. 我们认识有二十年了。
I haven’t seen her for a long time. 我好久没有见到她了。

练习:用since和for填空
1) ______ two years   2) _______ two years ago   3) _______ last month  
4) ______ 1999    5) _______ yesterday    6) _______ 4 o’clock
7) ______ 4 hours    8) _______ an hour ago   9) _______ we were children
10) _____ lunch time   11) ______ she left here

1. He has lived in Nanjing ________ the year before last.
2. I’ve known him __________ we were children.
3. Our teacher has studied Japanese _________ three years.
4. She has been away from the city ___________ about ten years.
5. It’s about ten years __________ she left the city.

2.短暂性转换延续性
①arrive at/in sw. get to/reach sw. come/go/move to sw.
→ be in sw./at school/at home/on the farm/be here/be there
He got to Beijing five minutes ago.
He ________ _________ _________ Beijing for _________ _________.
I moved to the USA last year.
I ________ ________ __________ the USA since __________ __________.
I went home yesterday.
I _______ ________ _________ home for _________ __________.
They came here last week.
They _________ _________ here since _________ __________.
②come/go back, return → be back   come/go out → be out
He came out two years ago.
He _________ __________ _________ for __________ __________.
We return to Fuzhou yesterday.
We ________ ________ _________ to Fuzhou since __________.
③become → be
I became a teacher in 2000.
I ________  __________ a teacher for _________ _________.
The river became dirty last year.
The river _________ _________ dirty for _________ __________.
④close → be closed  open → be open
The shop closed two hours ago.
The shop ________ _________ _________ for _________ _________.
The door opened at six in the morning.
The door ________ ________ ________ for six hours.
⑤get up → be up  die → be dead
 leave sw. → be away from sw.
 fall asleep/get tot sleep → be asleep
 finish/end → be over  marry → be married
I got up two hours ago.
I ________ ________ ________ since ________ ________.
He left Fuzhou just now.
He _______ ________ ________ _________ Fuzhou for five minutes.
My grandpa died in 2002.
My grandpa _______ _______ ________for _______ ________.
The meeting finished at six.
The meeting ________ ______ ______ for six hours.
I got to sleep two hours ago.
I ________ _________ _________ since _________ __________.
They married in 1990.
They ________ _________ __________since _________.
⑥start/begin to do sth. → do sth.  begin → be on
I began to teach at this school in 1995.
I ____ ____ at this school since ____.
The film began two minutes ago.
The film ____ ____ ____ for ____ ____.
⑦borrow → keep    lose → not have  buy → have    put on → wear 
catch/get a cold → have a cold  get to know → know
They borrowed it last week.
They _________ _________ it since __________ __________.
I bought a pen two hours ago.
I _________ _________ a pen for ________ __________.
I got to know him last year.
I _________ __________ him since __________ __________.
I put on my glasses three years ago.
I __________ __________ my glasses for _________ _________.
⑧have/has gone to → have been in
He has gone to Beijing.
He ____ ____ _____ Beijing for two days.
⑨join the league/the Party/the army
 → be a league/a Party member/a soldier
→ be a member of the league/the Party
→ be in the league/the Party/the army
He joined the league in 2002.
He ________ _________ a _________ _________ for two years.
He ________ __________ a __________ ___________ the __________ for two years.
He ____________ ___________ ___________ the league for two years.
My brother joined the army two years ago.
My brother __________ __________ a ___________ for ___________ ___________.
My brother ___________ ___________ in ____________ ___________ for two years.

3.汉译英
1)这本字典我已买了三年了。

2)他离开中国三年了。

3)我认识他们五年了。

4)他们已去了美国五年了。

5)自从他搬到福州,他就住这儿了。

6)他们已经结婚10年。

7)我妹妹成为一个大学生已经三年。

8)这会已开了多长时间了?

9)这门已经关了两天了。

10)我入团2年了。
    I __________  ___________  ___________ two years ago.
 I __________  ___________ a  ___________  ___________ for two years.
 I __________  ___________ a  ___________ of  __________  _________ for two years.
 I __________  ___________  ____________ the  __________ for two years.
11)自从1999年以来他们就认识。

12)我来到农场已5年了。

4.划线提问
1) I have been there for two days.
   __________ _________ __________ you __________ __________ ?
My father has lived here since 2000.
_________ _________ __________ your father _________ __________?
He left here yesterday.
_________ ________ he _________ __________?
They bought a book two hours ago.
__________ ___________ they __________ a book?

have been in, have been to 与have gone to 的用法
一、have(has) been in 表示“在某地呆多长时间”,常与表示一段时间的状语连用,如:since, for, how long 等。例如:
Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days. 布朗先生来上海已经有三天了。
此外还有这些搭配:  have been  here (there) /at home (school) /on the farm
              have been  here (there) / abroad

二、have(has)been to表示“曾经去过某地”,现在已经不在那里了。可与just, ever, never等连用,例如:  I have just been to the post office. 我刚才去邮局了。
Mary has never been to the Great Wall. 玛丽从未去过长城。
Have you ever been to Hangzhou? 你曾经去过杭州吗?

have(has) been to 后面可接次数,表示去过某地几次。例如: 
I have been to Beijing three times. 我去过北京三次。
They have been to that village several times. 他们去过那个村庄好几次了。

三、have(has) gone to 意为“到某地去了”,表示到了某地或正在去某地的途中。总之,说话时该人不在现场,一般不用第一、第二人称代词作句子的主语。
例如:----Where is Tom?    ----He has gone to the bookshop. 汤姆在哪里?他到书店去了。
Jack Johnson has gone to London. 杰克.约翰逊到伦敦去了。

练习:
I. 用have(has) been 或have(has) gone 填空。
A: Where ____________ Li Fei ___________?
B: He ____________ to Hainan Island.
A: How long ___________ he ___________ there?
B: He _____________ there for three days.
A: When will he come back , do you know?
B: I’m afraid he won’t come back recently.
A: Could you tell me the way to Hainan Island?
B: Sorry, I _________ never ___________ there.
A: How many times ___________ Li Fei __________ to that place?
B: He _____________ there only once.

II. 用have/has been to/in, have gone to及go的各种形式填空。
Where is Jack? He __________ his country.
David ________ the park just now.
John _______ England since he came back.
How long _____ have _____ this village?
The Smiths ______ Beijing for years.
_____ you ever ____ America?      -- Yes, I _____ there many times.
I _____ this school since three years ago.
Where is Jim? He _____ the farm.
When_____ he _____? He _______ an hour ago.
Would you like to _____ the zoo with me?   ---Yes, but I _____ there before.
Where _____ you _____ now?     --- I ____ the zoo.
He often _____ swimming.
_____ you ______ there last year?
_____ they often ______ skating in winter?

III.翻译下列句子:
他已经来中国三年多了。

他们出国两个月了。

我从来没去过长城。

你曾经出过国吗?

他已经去图书馆了。

他来这儿五年了。

昨天他去了公园。

“你要去哪里?”  “我要去学校。”

他常常去游泳。


综合练习:
I. 用never, ever, already, yet, for, since填空
I have _______ seen him before, so I have no idea about him.
Jack has _________ finished his homework ________ an hour ago.
Mr. Wang has taught in this school ________ ten years.
“Have you ________ seen the film?”   “No, I have ________ seen it.”
“Has the bus left _______?”   “Yes, it has _________ left.”

II. 翻译下列句子:
他们已经打扫了教室吗?

我们已经认识有二十年了。

打那以后,她一直住在这。

“你曾经到过那里吗?”   “不,我从来没到过那里。”
III. 用适当的时态填空:
1.She’s _____________ (live) here ever since she was ten.
2.Both of them ________________ (be) in Hongkong for ten days.
3.Both of them ________________ (come) to Hongkong ten days ago.
4. Half an hour __________ (pass) since the train __________ (leave).
5. Mary________(lose) her pen. ____________ you ______________ (see) it here and there?
6. _____________ you ____________ (find) your watch yet?
7. ---Are you thirsty?  ---No I _________ just _____________ (have) some orange.
8. We _____________already ______________ (return) the book.
9. ___________ they ____________ (build) a new school in the village?
10. I ________________(not finish) my homework . Can you help me?
11. My father _____ (read) the novel twice.
12. I _________ (buy) a book just now.
13. I _________ (lost ) my watch yesterday.
14. My father ___________ (read) this book since yesterday.

III.句型转换:
1. He has already gone home.  He _________  __________ home ____________.  (否定句)
        ____________ he __________ home ___________?  (疑问句)
2. He has lunch at home.  He __________  _____________ lunch at home.  (否定句)
       ____________ he __________  lunch at home?  (疑问句)
3. He has been there twice.   __________ __________ ________ __________ he been there?  (划线提问)
4. I have lunch at school.  __________ __________ you ____________ lunch.  (划线提问)

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