注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

深圳英语家教

深圳潜龙家教 www.szqljj.com

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

我来自山清水秀,人杰地灵的湖南,从事英语家教教学,追求卓越人生,真情待人,热心助人,欢迎八方来客光临!

网易考拉推荐

英语语法讲解——常用习惯用语  

2010-03-18 08:38:37|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
英语语法讲解——常用习惯用语

(一) 知识概要 
由于英语国家的语言习惯与中国的语言习惯有许多不同之处,所以造成了许多同学在做选择或书写,或与人交谈中造成误用中国方式来对英语的问句作解答。例如一个小女孩十分好看,可爱,外国人见到时会讲: You are so beautiful 这时的答语应该是 Thank you 如果外国人发现你的英语不错,他们会讲: Your English is very good 这时中国人常常会说:不,我说的不好。这纯是一种礼貌的答语,但是不符合英语习惯。它正确的答语应是 Thank you 虽然交际英语有一些规律可讲,但更重要的是学习外国的生活习惯,了解他们的文化背景,历史渊源,这样才能真正的学好一门外语。
(二) 正误辨析 
[误] - What can I do for you?
- Yes, please help me 
[正] - What can I do for you?
- I'd like to buy a sweater 
[析] What can I do for you? 这一问语实际上用于的情景很多,要根据具体情况而定。如在商店中售货员讲这句话应译为:您想要点什么?在其他场合也可以被译为:我能为您做些什么?它的答语应是直接讲出想让对方提供的帮助。
[误] - Which colour do you like?
- Sorry, I don't like 
[正] - Which colour do you like?
- I prefer blue 
[析] 由 which 来提问的问句是要回答具体的选择,而不能泛指,泛泛的回答。如 Yes, I like it
[误] Do you like to come with us tonight? 
[正] Would you like to come with us tonight? 
[析] Do you like … 问的是对方的习惯,如: Do you like swimming? Do you like collecting stamps? 而 would you like … 则是一次性的邀请、提议。邀请的英语表达法还有如下几种:
Shall we go? 我们走吧!
Let's go? 让我们走吧!
How about having a cup of tea? 喝杯茶如何?
What about a cup of coffee 喝杯咖啡如何?
Why not buy it? 为什么不买呢?
其肯定答语一般为Certainly, Yes, O.K. All right, With pleasure
[误] Sorry, I've kept you waiting
Not at all 
[正] Sorry, I've kept you waiting
Never mind 
[析] "介意不介意"这一问法与答语在中英文中有所不同。如:
- Do you mind my smoking here?- _________ 
A. Yes, do it please
B. No, of course not
C. Yes, take it please
D. No, you can't take it
这时正确的选择应是B。 其意为:不介意,当然不。而A选项则自相矛盾了,它应译为:是的我介意,请抽吧。而D选项是:不介意,你不能抽。当向对方争求意见时,可以有以下问法:
Do you mind if I open the door?
Would you mind mailing the letter for me
其答语如果是同意应为: Certainly not, not at all
而不同意时应为 Yes, 或 I'm sorry
[误] What's that man?
He is Mike 
[正] What's that man?
He is a teacher 
[正] Who's that man?
He is Mike (He is Mike's father) 
[析] 由 what 提问是问的职业,由 who 提问问的是姓名或身份。
[误] - How much are they?
- Half a kilo, please 
[正] - How many bananas do you want?
- Half a kilo Please 
[析] How much are they? 问的是价格而不是实际物品的多少。
[误] I'm sorry, but is this the way to the park? 
[正] Excuse me, but is this the way to the park? 
[析] I'm sorry 是对已经做错了的事向对方道歉时的开始语。而 Excuse me 是在打扰对方之前表达歉意的话。
[误] - Have a good time tonight!
- You are the same 
[正] - Have a good time tonight!
- The same to you 
[析] The same to you 是表达我也祝您有个愉快的夜晚,它是美语中的习惯用法。
[误] - What's the problem?
- I've got a headache 
[正] What's wrong with you?
I've got a headache 
[析] What's wrong with you? 是询问对方身体状态如何,而 What's the problem?是问对方遇到了什么麻烦。
[误] - Now, I'm back Can I play?
- Perhaps You'd better do your homework first 
[正] - Now, I'm back Can I play?
- I'm afraid not You'd better do your homework first 
[析] Perhaps 是表示对一种拿不准的事态的推论,如: Am I right? Perhaps而 I'm afraid not 则表达一种不同意的态度。 be afraid 的几种用法有:
I'm afraid that you are right
其后直接加宾语从句。
- Will you come to my birthday party?
- I'm afraid not I have to go to see my father He is in hospital
其后+not,表示否定。
- Sorry, I don't want to go there alone, I'm afraid of the dog
其后+名词,表示对某人,某物的害怕。
Mary is afraid of making mistakes in the exam
其后+ of + 动名词,表示害怕做某事。
Mary is afraid to see the teacher because she didn't do well in the exam
其后+ 不定式,表示不敢去做某事。
[误] - How soon will you be ready?
- Two days 
[正] - How soon will you be ready?
- In two days 
[析] 此题关键是要根据情景,身临其境,要注意的是对方问了什么,就应答什么。或答了什么就应问什么。 How soon 问的是"还有多久才能作完",这时要用 in two days, 即在两小时之内即可以作完。如用 How long 提问,则答语可以用 two days。
[误] - Would you mind if I have some time off?
- I don't mind
- Monday and Tuesday of next week 
[正] - Would you mind if I have some time off?
- When exactly
- Monday and Tuesday of next week 
[析] 有的对话是复杂的,稍有不慎就有可能选错,而且英语中如选错了答案是不容易找出错来的。 I don't mind 是可以用来回答 Would you mind…这一提问的,但如仔细看一看则会发现我们要选用的不是陈述句而是疑问句。根据下面一句的答语来判定要用 when exactly? 什么时间,这样才能与下句中具体的时间相符合。
[误] Suppose your name is Tom The phone rings and you pick it up The first word you say will probably be "Who are you?" 
[正] Suppose your name is Tom The phone rings and you pick it up The first word you say will probably be "Hello? This is Tom speaking?" 
[析] 在英语学习中,习惯用法实际上在某种情况,或某种意义上讲比语法更为重要。如果只从句子的角度上去分析,它们可能都是对的。比如,当你拿起电话时,如果你想知道对方是谁,可以问"Who's that(speaking)?"但不要讲"Who are you?"如果你想先介绍一下自己可以讲"This is ×××× speaking"而不要讲"I'm ××××"也不要讲"My name is ×××××." 就语法而论,"Who are you?" "I'm ××××""My name is ×××××"并不错,也是英语中可用的句子,但就打电话这一场合,就不宜用了。
[误] - Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?
- I don't hope so 
[正] - Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?
- I hope not 
[析] 由于初学者对实际英语口语中表达感情意愿的答语不熟悉,如在肯定答语中 I think so I hope so I believe so 是相同的,但在否定句中却常用 I don't think so 但I don't believe so 和 I don't hope so 则意为:我不信此事和我不希望此事发生。而 I believe not 和 I hope not 则为:我想可能不会发生吧!
[误] - Is anybody there?
- No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave 
[正] - Is everybody there?
- No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave 
[析] 许多学生在写作和选择答语或问句时总要语法在前,而不是习惯用语在先。所以总是要拘泥疑问句中的不定代词,用 anybody。 但是Is anybody there? 在英语中为:这里有人吗?而Is everybody there?为:全都到齐了吗?所以首先要考虑的是其答语。 No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave
[误] - Your handwriting is very good!
- No, my handwriting is very poor 
[正] - Your handwriting is very good!
- Thank you 
[析] 中国人遇到别人称赞,总是以谦逊为美德。但英美人则往往认为自信是美德。所以当别人夸奖你或赞美你时,就应说: Thank you 又比如中国人见面时常讲 Where are you going? 或 Have you had your breakfast yet?而英美人则认为你过多的干预别人的私生活了。而他们见面时往往问一些无关紧要的话,如: Hello! How are you going? (你过得怎样) Morning! 等。而 good morning 和 How do you do 则被认为是较正规的问候语,在日常生活中则十分少见。
[误] When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave you may say: "Excuse me I'll go first" 
[正] When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave you may say: "Excuse me I have to go" 
[析] 这两句答语都是正确的,其关键不是语法,而是习惯问题。如果在这样的场合你讲 I'll go first 朋友们会迷惑不解,而 I have to go 则表示由于外界的特殊原因而造成的你要离去,而你本人则十分不愿做此事。
[误] - Would you like to come to dinner tonight?
- I'd like to, and I'm too busy 
[正] - Would you like to come to dinner tonight?
- I'd like to, but I'm too busy 
[析] I'm too busy 与 I'd like to 在意义上正好相反。所以要用转折连词。这里考查了对词义合乎逻辑的表达能力。所以要强调语言环境,更要强调在语言的基础上的词语辨析。
[误] - Where's Deter?
- Deter will come with us tonight but he isn't very sure yet 
[正] - Where's Deter?
- Deter may come with us tonight but he isn't very sure yet 
[析] 由于 but 所引出的句子可以看出 Deter 的来与不来是十分不确定的,所以应用 may 来表达一个不肯定的事件。
[误] - Hi, haven't seen you for ages! You look fine!
- Great You look well too 
[正] - Hi, haven't seen you for ages! You look fine!
- Thanks You look well too 
[析] 要注意的是 Great 在口语中多表示惊叹,而 Thanks 则表示感谢对方的称赞。所以对情景谈话要有准确的判定,要根据情景,身临其境,上下对照,周密思考,弄清场合,注意英美人的风俗习惯,注重语义上的词语辨析,并要进行大量的语言实践练习,扩大实际交际能力。
(三) 例题解析 
1  - Would you like to have some rice?
- _________ .
A Yes, I like B Yes, please C of course D Yes, I have

[答案] B.
[析] 当对方对你发出邀请的问语时,如果你想接受则讲 Yes, please 如不想接受则用No, thanks
2  - Nice to see you
- _________ .
A Good morning B Happy to meet you, too 
C Nice to see you, too D Pleased to meet you, too

[答案] C.
[析] 虽然A、B、D三个选项都可以作为某种问候语的答语,但英语中问候语的答语多用重复对方的话,以表达同样的心情。
3  - Would you please give me some water?
- _________ .
A Yes, I would B Certainly C No, thanks D Yes, please

[答案] B.
[析] 当对方发出十分礼貌的请求帮助的问语时,一般的回答是肯定的。而Yes, please 为"是的,您请做某事吧"。这一含意显然不对。
4  - Thank you very much for helping me
- _________ .
A You're welcome B It doesn't matter
C No need D Don't say that

[答案] A.
[析] You're welcome 译为中文为:不用谢。而 It doesn't matter 则为:没关系。
5  - Hello, Lucy How are you?
- _________ And you?
A Fine, thanks B Yes, I am
C Glad to meet you D Good afternoon

[答案] A.
[析] 在正常交往中一定要避免所问非所答。所以对 How are you? 的答语应为"很好,谢谢!"
6  - Help yourself to some meat
- _________ 
A It sounds nice. B Yes, please. 
C Yes, Let's help each other. D Thank you.

[答案] D.
[析] Help yourself to some meat. 你自己拿些肉吃吧。其意为主人劝客人不要客气,像在家里一样。
7  - Oh, I am not feeling well I've got a cold
- _________ 
A Fine, How are you? B Never mind Take care 
C Well, I 'm sure to get weel soon. D I'm sorry to hear that

[答案] D.
[析] 这是美国、英国的习惯用语,而B、 C则是中国人常讲的答语。
8  - Meimei you speak English very well
- _________ .
A No, I don't think so B Thank you very much
C Not good enough D That's all right

[答案] B.
9  - "Kate, could you answer the telephone, please?"
- _________ , Mum I'll get it.
A Yes, I could B No, thanks 
C OK D Yes, but I have no time

[答案] C.
[析] 要注意 could 用于口语中是为了讲话的口气委婉,但它不是过去时态,也不是助动词,而应看作情态动词。所以在答语中则不应这样用。
10  - Could you look after Polly for me while we're away?
- _________ 
A No, thanks. B With pleasure. 
C I'm not afraid. D I'm sure you will.

[答案] B.
[析] With pleasure 是英语中的一句十分客气的答语,用在当对方因你的帮助或你的许诺向你道谢时,表达自己十分乐意为对方效力的口气。
11  - Hello! Could I speak to the headmaster, please?
- _________ 
A Hold on, please. B That's the headmaster, please. 
C Who are you ? please. D Sorry I'm not the headmaster.

[答案] A.
[析] hold on, please 是指请对方等一等不要将电话放下的用语。如果要讲我就是的话不能用 that, 而要用 this, 在电话用语中 that 指对方, this 指自己。
12  - Happy birthday!
- _________ 
A Thank you. B The same to you. 
C Good luck. D Congratulations.

[答案] A.
[析] the same to you 是同样祝贺对方的意思,不能用于生日这一祝贺语,除非两人的生日在同一天。
13  - I'm sorry I don't know the way, either You'd better ask that policeman for help
- _________ 
A Good night. B That's nothing. 
C Very well. D Thank you all the same.

[答案] D.
[析] 当向对方求助时,对方无能为力,这时的感谢语则为 Thank you all the same 意为不管如何还是要谢谢你。
14  - I fell and hurt my leg last week, So I can't do anything
- _________ .
A I'm sorry B Don't worry
C Good luck D Bad luck

[答案] D.
[析] 如果用A则要用 I'm sorry to hear that而不能单用 I'm sorry 因I'm sorry 是向对方道歉。而 bad luck 为真是不幸啊。
15  - _________ 
- I have got a cough
A What's your trouble? B What have you got? 
C Why did you come here? D Have you got a cough?

[答案] A.
[析] What's your trouble? 多用于问对方有什么问题、麻烦或得了什么病。这种用语还有 What's wrong with you?
16  - Would you like to go shopping with me?
- _________ 
A Yes, I'd love to. B That's right.
C Yes, please. D Quite well.

[答案] A.
[析] 表示愿意作某事应讲:I'd love to I'd like to
17  - What's the weather like today!
- _________ 
A It's nice for a walk. B I like autumn best of all.
C It will be fine tomorrow. D It's rather cold today.

[答案] D.
[析] 本题要注意问的是什么,不要所问非所答。因问题是今天的天气怎样,所以只能选D
18  - Is Jane in ,please? I want to speak to her
- Sorry, she is out You'd better _________ .
A visit her in the office B call her later 
C see her this afternoon D speak to her yourself

[答案] B.
[析] call her later 晚些时候再来电话。
19  - _________ 
- Very well, thank you, and you?
A How do you do? B Good morning 
C How are you these days? D How do you like English?

[答案] C.
[析] 本题是由答语来推断问话,所以应熟悉英语的问答习惯: How do you do? 的答语应为 How do you do?
20  - How is your mother?
- _________ 
A She is old. B She is no better than she was. 
C She is kindhearted. D She is in her forties.

[答案] B.
[析] How is your mother? 问的是你妈身体如何,而B选项则是"她不比以前强"。而其他三个选项则是所问非所答。
21  - Thank you very much for your help
- _________ .
A You're welcome B Please don't
C There's no trouble D No, no

[答案] A.
22  Your uncle has taken you to the cinema Afterwards you thank him
He says " _________ ."
A It was nothing B I'm glad you enjoyed it 
C Don't say it D No, needn't

[答案] B.
[析] 这是英语的答语,千万不要选A,因它是中文习惯的答语。
23  - Thank you for your good present
- _________ .
A It's not good B No, no
C My pleasure D Never mind

[答案] C.
24  When someone did a good deed for you, you should say _________ .
A.you are too good B.It's very kind of you  C.you are very kind D.I'll thank you
[答案] B.
25  - I am very sorry I am late for dinner 
- _________ .
A.No, you aren't B.That's all right  C.Yes, you are D.No, you don't
[答案] B.
[析] That's all right 没关系。
26  - I'm sorry if I hurt you
- _________ .
A I'm sorry B It's not true 
C It doesn't matter D Don't say sorry

[答案] C.
27  - I should have gone to see the exhibition with you 
- _________ .
A I'm sorry B What a pity 
C It doesn't matter to me D That's terrible
[答案] B.
[析] What a pity. 真遗憾。第一句应为我真该和你一起去展览会。
28  - Help yourself to some fish
- _________ .
A You are very kind B Yes, I'm helping myself 
C Thank you D Yes, don't worry about me
[答案] C.
29  - Are you ready?-______ .
A I'm very sorry B Try to be patient 
C Not yet, wait a minute D Do you have the time, please?
[答案] C.
[析] not yet 意为还没有完成。
30  - Mum, I have passed the exam
- _________ .
A That's all right B Congratulations
C You are luck D Good luck to you
[答案] B.
31  - I think I have to leave I hope we can get together again
- _________ .
A All right B That's all right
C OK D I hope so, too
[答案] D.
32  Must I wait till he comes back?  .
A No, you needn't B No, you mustn't 
C No, you may not D No, you can't
[答案] A.
[析] must 提问表示必须这样做吗?而肯定句要用 must, 表示必须做,而否定句则要用 needn't 表示没有必要做。
33  - _________ I pay you the house rent right away?
- Yes, you have to do it
A Shall B Way C Must D Have
[答案] C.
34  - Don't you think this colour is too bright? 
- _________ 
A Yes, I agree. B Yes, but I don't think so. 
C Yes, of course not. D Yes, what's wrong?
[答案] A.
35  - It was cold yesterday
- _________ .
A So was it B So it was
C I believe not so D I believe not
[答案] B.
[析] 当答语只是重复对方讲的话时,则不用倒装。因 so it was即为:是的,天气昨天很冷。而当讲前面讲的动作也适合于另一个人时,则要倒装。如: I went to the cinema yesterday So did I 表示对方去了电影院,我也去了。
36  - What do you think of the song?
- _________ .
A I like music very much B I like it too 
C With pleasure D It sounds sweet
[答案] D.
[析] sound 在这里是系动词,为听起来很甜美。系动词后要用形容词,而不要用被动语态。
37  Do you like tea or coffee? _________ .
A Yes, I do B Thank you
C That's fine D Either will do
[答案] D.
[析] either will do 为两者哪个都可以。
38  I like your sweater very much _________ .
A No, it's ugly B Sorry
C Thank you D You're welcome
[答案] C.
[析] 这是英美语言的习惯。
39  He likes travelling by train  _________ .
A So do I B I dos
C I like so D I like it, neither
[答案] A.
40  - How do you like your school?
- _________ .
A I like it very much B It's very beautiful
C I doesn't like it D Very well
[答案] B.
[析] How do you like … 是问你们学校是怎样值得你热爱的。也就是为什么你热爱你的学校。
41  What a nice day!  _________ 
A You're right. B No, isn't it?
C Yes, isn't it? D Really?
[答案] C.
[析] Yes, isn't it 是的,难道不是个好天气吗?
42  - Hello, _________ ?
- This is Della speaking
A Who are you B Are you Tom 
C Who is that D Please tell me who are you
[答案] C.
[析] 电话用语中 that 指对方,而 this 指自己。
43  -What's he like? 
- _________ .
A He likes English B He is old 
C He is like a farmer D He is tall and this
[答案] D.
[析] 要区分 What's he like? 如 What does he like? 前者为:他长得什么样?而后者是:他喜欢什么。
44  How did you do your job? 
Not very well, _________ .
A I'm sure B I am afraid
C Thank you D I'm sorry
[答案] B.
[析] I am afraid 我恐怕是,我想是。
45  - _________ your aunt?
-She is a principal of a middle school
A What does B Where does
C What is D Whom is
[答案] C.
46  - _________ 
- He is my boss
A What's the man? B Who is the man? 
C How is the man? D What does the man do?
[答案] B.
47  - May I have your name? 
- _________ .
A No, no B You're polite
C Call me John D It's kind of you

[答案] C.
48  - Shall I make coffee for you? 
- _________ .
A Yes, thank you B No, don't trouble 
C Don't trouble this, thank you D No, don't make it

[答案] A.
49  - Could you show me the way to Mr Buown's office?
- _________ .
A Not at all B I'm sure
C All right D I can do it

[答案] C.
50  - Shall we go swimming tomorrow afternoon?
- _________ .
A It's very kind of you B You are so thoughtful 
C That's a good idea D Yes, we'll go

[答案] C.
  评论这张
 
阅读(485)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017