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完形填空与阅读理解思路和解题方法  

2010-03-18 08:43:38|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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完形填空与阅读理解思路和解题方法

(一) 知识概要 
完形填空是一种在语意封闭的情况下考察学生阅读能力及掌握语言基础知识能力的综合性题目。学生应根据语义完整、语法正确的原则进行通篇阅读。借助文章的现成文字,通过逻辑思维,联系上下文,推断出可能的答案。然后再从所给选择答案中逐空选出在通读全文时脑海中已出现的答案填入空内。试推想在小学五六年级时去读"西游记","水浒传",你也并非每个字都认得,每句话都能真正理解。但你还是可以明了全文的意思,读得有滋有味。这就是语言能力。所以完形填空考查的就是你能否在缺字,不认得字、词语的情况下,能否全面理解文章的正确意思,然后选入适当的词语。在选择后还要前后彼此呼应反复验证所选答案。有时答案一时不易验证,不要急于顺序填写,可能在填出后面答案时,而得到前面的答案。有时则需运用所学的词法、句法、时态和固定搭配等知识对4个选项进行分析,比较、排除干扰项,确定正确的答案。待答案全部选定后,一定要复读全文以验证:① 所选答案是否能使全文流畅,逻辑推理是否正确。② 具体实事是否成立,前后关系是否理顺。③ 语法是否正确,其中包括时态的选择、词汇选择、固定搭配等。在通读全文时最好在可能的条件下将所选答案填入文章中,反复阅读。而不要在文章空中只写选项的代号,这样影响全文的理解,不易找出错误之处。在做完形填空时,应注意以下几点:
(1) 重视首句,首段的开篇启示作用,读懂了第一句,或第一段有可能预测到全篇大意。
(2) 一定要顾及上下文间的语意联系。在完形填空的设计中,一般是以语义为第一要素同时兼顾语法。有的4个选项单独填入这个单句中全是正确的,但拿到文中从下文联系起来看,则文理不通。为此要通篇考虑,顾及上下文的联系是十分重要的。
(3) 要坚持语意第一的原则,而语法应放于第二位。完形填空形式上是一种单项选择式的考察。但实质上也是一种阅读能力和学生重建文意能力的考察。它一般是利用语法的正确性与内容排斥性的矛盾而命题的。所给答案大都是离开上下文均可说得通的。但语意上辩析、排斥才能找到答案。例如:
It took Charlie Mui several months to save up seven dollars He wanted to ______ a model plane and went to the shop with the money
A sell B buy C hold D bring
这里肯定需要一个动词,所给答案也都是动词,但只能从意义上考虑而选B项。
(4) 要认真注意细节,做到语法正确。一些答案在意义上讲都是正确的,但从线索上看要找出语法正确的答案。如:
Mr Evans is an old man of about sixty His wife died a few years ago His chi
ldren ______ him by then.
A left B would leave C have left D had left
答案应为D。这句话正确的语意都是"离开",但仔细发现有 by then 之说,由此可得出这是个动作的截止时间,应选为 had left 过去完成时态。下面再看一些例子。
(1) 语意第一原则
A young father was visiting an old neighbour They were standing in the old man's garden and talking about ______ .
A trees B flowers C children D old people
那么他们谈论的中心是什么呢?可能是树、花,由于他们是在花园里谈论。但如果前后的段落配合看,则其谈论的也可能是孩子和老年人。这就是要求我们切勿望文生义。
(2) 语法正确,注意细节的原则
在语意正确的前题下,还要根据学过的语法知识,及词语的固定搭配,选择正确答案。如:
One night the dog began to bark suddenly It made Mr Erens  ______ ①______  to sleep He had to get up and tried his ______ ② ______  to stop it, but the beast wouldn't stop, and kept on ______ ③ ______ 
① A go not B not go C not to go D to not go
② A well B good C better D best
③ A bark B to bark C barking D barked
以上3个小题中所给答案从语意上都是正确的,这就要求选择语法正确的那一个。第一空中根据句子结构,要填一个宾语补足语。而动词 make 后面的定语补足语应省去不定式符号 to, 且其否定式 + not,即不定式的否定式为 not to do, 而省去 to 后则应为 not do. 在动词前直接+ not故应选B。而第二个空显然是一个固定搭配。语意上为: Mr Erens 尽力地阻止狗叫,所以应选D。 try one's best 是尽力而为之意。第三个空显然是 keep on doing something 连续不断之意,应选 ing 的动词形式。其答案为C。
(3) 根据所给答案的不同词类,从不同角度分别考虑选择
完形填空所给的词往往是不同类的,这就要求对不同词类作不同考虑。如果所缺的是动词,那么首先在选择语意正确的前提下,考虑动词的时态、语态和是否是要填入非谓语动词。若是介词或副词则要考虑是否固定搭配,以及介词、副词在结构和意义上的选择。若是连词,则应更多地从句子结构和上下文的连接上选择。若是代词,则应考虑性、数、格等方面,以及形容词和副词的比较级和最高级等。
例如: A man and his wife had a small bar near a station They often worked late into the night, ______ ① ______  people came to drink there while they were  ______ ② ______  trainsAt two o'clock one morning, one man was still at a table in the small bar He was asleep The bar man's wife wanted to leave She looked ______ ③ ______ the bar several times, and each time the man was  ______ ④ ______  there Then at last she went to her husband and said to him, "You  ______ ⑤ ______  that man six times, George ,
 ______ ⑥ ______ he isn't drinking anything"
①  A as soon as B because C so D though 
②  A catching up with B getting on C looking after D waiting for 
③  A at B for C into D out of 
④  A always B often C still D already 
⑤  A have woken B wake C had woken D will wake 
⑥  A and B but C yet D too 
从文中看,第一选项,由于给了不同的连词,从意义选择应为B。第二选项均为分词形式,也应从语意上选择,其答案是D。 第三选项给了四个介词,而 into 则是从外向里观看,所以应选C。第四项是副词 still 意为仍然,从意义上应选择C。 而第五项所给的是同个动词,只是时态不同。从故事情景看,只能选完成时态A。 而最后一个选项是连词,由于句意则只能用 but 转折连词。
从目前完形填空初中阶段的考察看,除语意第一外,更多地选择了单词的用法及意义,动词的时态,短语和惯用法等。为此,要做好完形填空题目,除有较好的阅读能力外,更要有扎实的语言基础知识及日常生活的逻辑推理能力。阅读理解能力在教学大纲中有明确的要求。它是目前条件下考查学生英语运用能力的常规题型之一,也是分值最高的题型之一。学生的阅读理解能力如何,标志着学生继续深入学习的潜力有多大,它是集语法,词汇,逻辑推理背景知识于一体的综合语言能力的测试。它除对学生的阅读理解的正确性进行测试外,同时从阅读速度、技巧、文化背景常识等方面对学生进行测试。从近年各地中考题分析看,阅读类测试除为一般常规测试题型外,在试题中所占分值较大,为此应引起学生特别注意。如何做好阅读理解题呢?首先要求考生有足够的基础知识和较好的阅读速度以及技巧方面的训练。同时还要注意以下几个方面的问题。
1 要了解阅读测试的重点
如上所述,阅读过程是一个综合作用的过程,为此阅读的测试就不能仅将着眼点放在语言结构的测试上,而是通过看,通过阅读获取信息的能力。在阅读一篇文章时,我们首先会想到:① 文章说的是什么事情(即中心思想是什么)。② 事情发生的时间、地点、人物是什么。③ 作者所持态度如何。④ 结论是什么。有些说明性信息在文章中容易获取,如:时间、数字、地点、人物等。有些信息如作者的态度,事件的结论,中心思想,文章的标题,则需通过文中线索,说明信息等等去分析推断才能获取。而这些说明性及内隐性的信息正是阅读理解的测试重点内容。而其难点在于理解、推断、得出结论时,应从英语国家的风俗习惯、语言习惯、宗教信仰、民族问题等方面来考虑,而不是仅从中国人的语言习惯来作推论。这也是这方面的难点之一。
例: John drove a taxi through the busy streets of Boston every dayJohn was ____________
A a manager B a driver C a policeman D a dustman 
由此我们应能由drive a taxi 来得出结论约翰是位出租车司机而不是别的什么人。
例:Mrs Barker's sister was ill She had someone to look after her from Monday to Friday, but not at the weekend, so every Friday evening Mrs Baker used to go off to spend the weekend at her home in a neighboring town…This meant that Mr Baker … First he had to drive home from the station Then he had to drive his wife to the station to catch her trainWho was ill? ____________ 
A MrBaker B Mrs Baker
C Mr Baker's sister D Mrs Baker's sister
从这些只言片语中可以看出有三个人物出场,而问题的设计是表浅的,只要细心即可。
[答案] D.
从中考阅读命题中,由于考虑到考生的能力有限,和大部分学生毕业的要求,语言结构的测试占很大一部分比重。但对于要考入重点中学的学生来讲,仅仅几分较高要求的题目可能会决定他们的升学命运。因为这一部分分值是往往使学生棘手的那些隐性问题的测试。如:
Like many other families in 1870, Katie Olson and her family had come to the grassy plains of Kansas Katie liked the prairie and their new sold house But with no friends to play with, she was very lonely Besides her mother and father, she had only her little brother, Matt, for company She missed their old home in Wisconsir Then one day her father had exciting news Some settlers had bought the farm near the Olson's land Katie became so excited on hearing the news that she thought she might burst She begged her father to let her ride over with him to greet their new neighborsThe two rode across the prairie They found Mr and Mrs Laski were hard at working building their sod home Katie was disappointed She had hoped there would be some children to play with But soon Mr Laski called out" Anna, and Carl, come out of the wagon" A boy and a girl jumped down and came over to Katie Katie didn't believe it Her wish had come true
1  Who was the most important person in the story?
A Matt B Katie C Mr Laski D Anna and Carl 
2  What was Katie's problem in the story?
A She had no friend. B She didn't like Kansas.
C She couldn't ride a horse. D She didn't like Anna and Carl. 
从上文中看,信息的获得不是直接的,而是必须通过整个文章的阅读,理清人物关系,掌握中心思想,才能作出正确的判定。如第一问故事中人物众多,但一直到读完才知,故事讲述了一个女孩Katie的事情。则她是故事的中心,所以应选择B 第二问是测试通过阅读是否了解了人物的心理情绪。这些信息必须通过线索,综合判定,从而其结论是A。
2 阅读理解的解题思路和方法
阅读理解的测试点是在通过由于阅读所能够获取信息的能力上,所以解题思路的重点应放在:
(1) 通读全文,了解文章的主题和大意;了解作者的写作目的、对事件的态度上。
People sometimes change their way of doing business In a village in Africa, people are using money for the first time They're doing business with the world Before this tribe (部落) used money, people came to the market in the village to trade (交易) things they had for things they needed Now people must use money to buy what they wantBefore using money, people helped one another Their father who was head of the family, gave food, and clothing to his sons and their families In return, the sons worked for their father Now people no longer work for one another free Instead, they are paid for the work they doWhen a new road was needed. Everyone in the village helped build it, Now people must pay money to the village chief (首领) for roads and schools The chief hires workers to build these new projects More and better roads and schools are being builtIt is not easy for people to change a way of doing business To change from trading goods to using money takes time
①  The story doesn't say so, but it makes you think that ____________.
A family members often quarrel (争吵) about money
B Africans do not change their way of doing business
C Africans refuse to use money
D families do not help one another in the same way now 
[答案] D.
②  On the whole this story is about ____________ 
A the life of some Africans
B changing from goods to using money
C people helps one another
D building roads across Africa 
[答案] B.
从以上的问题看,所设提问均不是对某个具体事实。而是真对整篇文章,由此可见通读全文,掌握中心和作者的态度的重要性。
(2) 要注重文句间的相互关系。既注重主要情节又不可忽视细节。中考中阅读命题很多情况下是对事件的某个细节而进行测试的。
例:… on Saturday afternoon they began with the back of the house The next Saturday Tom went to a football match while his wife painted the front of the house The next day they found they couldn't open any of the front windows They get them open at last, but they broke three of the seven and they were very expensive to repair
①  They lasted for about ______ days
A two B three
C more than seven D Less than seven

[答案] A.
②  They had to get someone to make repair for ______ windows
A seven B four C ten D three

[答案] D.
第一问中,如不分析第一句和第二句中的两个 Saturday, 很可能会选择答案C。事实上,他们只干了两个 Saturday, 而不是从这个星期六到下个星期六的7天时间。而第二问是他们弄坏了所有7个窗户中的3个,所以应选D。
(3) 特别注意首尾句在整个文章中的作用,以及它起到的启示和结论性作用。
例: Man has a big brain He can think, learn and speak……but no animal learns when we speak? Scientists do not really know They only know that man can speak because he has a big brain
这篇文章只要我们注意了首尾句,即可得出结论,它是讲述人类大脑与语言的关系的。人脑的其中一个作用是使他拥有语言,也就是和动物 apes, dogs 有了根本的区别。这样这篇文章的许多细节可以迎刃而解了。
①  In what way are men different from animals?
A Men can understand things quickly.
B Men can learn.
C Men have learned language.
D Men have brains. 
[答案] C.
②  Scientists now know ______
A how children learn to speak
B why apes can learn a few words
C men's brain helps him to learn to speak
D what happens when men speak

[答案] C.
③  What is the topic the writer wants to talk about?
A ape's language
B men's brain and language
C human brain
D animals' learning

[答案] B.
以上只是做阅读练习中的一般分析,要取得优异成绩,还有赖于扎实的阅读基础和语言能力,以及平时的技巧训练和刻苦练习。要坚持每天至少读三四篇文章,以逐步提高自己的英语水平。
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