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初中英语词汇学习常见错误分析(A)  

2010-03-20 08:17:51|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初中英语词汇学习常见错误分析(A)

A

a 

[误] I think it is an useful English dictionary.

[正] I think it is a useful English dictionary.

[析] 在不定冠词a与an的用法中要注意的一点是:an用在以元音开头的词之前;而a则用在以辅音开头的词之前。要特别注意的是以u字母打头的单词,如useful,university等,其第一个音标是[j],所以要特别予以注意。

[误] I need a hour to finish this letter.

[正] I need an hour to finish this letter.

[析] 要注意hour和honest的第一个字母不发音。

[误] My teacher is a unknown man, but he is a very good man.

[正] My teacher is an unknown man, but he is a very good man.

[析] 要注意以u打头的单词,它的发音为[]时,单数名词前要用an,如uncle等。

[误] There is a "f" in the word "football".

[正] There is an "f" in the word "football".

[析] 英文字母单独使用时,如其第一个发音是元音时,其前面的不定冠词应该用an而不是a.

[误] I have a little brother. He is a 8yearold boy.

[正] I have a little brother. He is an 8yearold boy.

[析] 要注意这些字母的第一个发音为元音,如eight, eleven等。

able 

[误] This bike is able to be repaired.

[正] This bike can be repaired.

[析] be able to 主要表达某事或某人具有某种能力去作某事,应译为"有本领"、"有能力"、"可以"作某事,如:I'm able to swim across this river. 而can可以用来表示具有接受能力或吸收能力。如:This radio can be repaired here.

about 

[误] This class is about to begin just now.

[正] This class is about to begin.

[析] 要注意be about to 是"将要"的意思,含有将来时之意,不要与表示过去时的时间状语连用。另外,be about to 一般用作书面语,对应的口语是be going to.

about on 

about与on都可以作"关于"讲,但却有所不同,例如:This book is about physics. 应译为"这是一本关于物理学的科普读物。"而:This book is on physics.则应译为"这是一本物理学方面的专著。"

above 

[误] The temperature is five degrees over zero.

[正] The temperature is five degrees above zero.

[析] 表达"在……上方"时,above与over是可以互换的,如:The sky is above(or over)our heads. 但是要表达在垂直方向上的上方时则应用above不可用over,如:The sun has risen above the horizon.

[误] There is often thick cloud above the South of China in summer.

[正] There is often thick cloud over the South of China in summer.

[析] 当表达覆盖之意时,只可用over而不能用above.

[误] There is a bridge above the river.

[正] There is a bridge over the river.

[析] 用来表达"从……上方越过"时不能用above只能用over,如:The plane flew over the city. 但要注意There is waterfall above the bridge. 则应译为"在桥的上游有一个瀑布。"

across 

[误] He ran across the wood.

[正] He ran through the wood.

[析] across是指某一动作在一平面内进行,而through则是指该动作在一三维立体空间的运动过程。如:The man came in through the window. He walked across the square.

across 

across的主要用法有两个。其一,意为"对面",如:There is a school just across the street. 其二,意为"横过",如:He walked across the street.

afraid 

[误] I dont't afraid of him.

[正] I am not afraid of him.

[析] 要注意"害怕"afraid一词在英语中不是动词,而是形容词,要与be动词连用。

after 

[误] Two weeks after he left.

[正] Two weeks later he left.

[正] He left after two weeks.

[析] 要表达"在多少时间之后",英语中有两种表达法,即:用later时,要时间在前,如three hours later; 而用after时要时间在后,如after three hours.

[误] My father will be back after a few hours.

[正] My father will be back in a few hours.

[析] 受中文的影响,这个介词常常被误用。当你要表达在一段时间内某个动作可以完成时,一定要用in,而不能用after,因为after是指在某一时间之后。例如:This work will be done in two days. 即表明在两天内这一工作一定会做完。而如用了after,即表示在两天之后,完成的时间是不确定的。

after behind 

after多用于表示顺序的前后,如:She walked in the line after Tom. 或用来表示"追赶",表示一种动态,如:He ran after Mary. 而behind多用于强调先进与落后,如:She is much behind the other girls in sewing. 或者用于表达"迟于",如:The train was ten minutes behind the time table. 或者与表示静态的动词连用,如:She hid herself behind the flowers.

afternoon 

[误] He worked very hard in a hot afternoon.

[正] He worked very hard on a hot afternoon.

[析] 习惯用的词组in the afternoon, 如果加入任何修饰词后其前面的介词in都要改为on,不论其修饰词在前还是在后,如:He swam in this river on the afternoon of June lst. 又如:Are you free on Sunday afternoon?

against 

[误] He against me.

[正] He is against me.

[析] 要注意against意为"反对",但它在英文中却不是动词,而是介词,如要讲反对某事或某人时则要加动词be, 如:He is against somebody/something.

against for 

against意为"反对"、"不赞成";而for则意为"同意",为其反意词。如:Are you for or against the plan?

age 

[误] He is twenty years old of age.

[正] He is twenty.

[正] He is twenty years old.

[正] He is at the age of twenty.

ago 

[误] Tom's father has been dead five years ago.

[正] Tom's father died five years ago.

[析] ago意为由说话时算起,若干时间以前。它只能和一般动词过去时连用,而不要与完成时连用。

[误] Yesterday I met a friend. We didn't see each other for a long time since we left the college twenty years ago.

[正] Yesterday I met a friend. We hadn't seen each other for a long time since we left the college twenty years ago.

[析] 要注意的是在本句是ago是用在由since引起的从句之中,只是从句应用过去时,但不影响主句的时态。

agree 

[误] Does the teacher agree to us?

[正] Does the teacher agree with us?

[误] Does he agree with our plan?

[正] Does he agree with us?

[析] agree with 指"同意某人的提议、建议、计划"等。如果要讲同意某项计划则要用agree to, 如:Do you agree to the plan?

all 

[误] The old man has two sons. All of them are workers.

[正] The old man has two sons. Both of them are workers.

[析] all是指三者或以上的全部,而both则是指"两者都"。

[误] The all children are playing football now.

[正] All the children are playing football now.

[析] all作修饰词时其位置要在所有的修饰词之前,不论这些修饰词是定冠词、指示代词、形容词或名词,或代词的所有格。

[误] You all are right.

[正] You are all right.

[析] all作同位语时其位置要置于be动词之后,实意动词之前,如:The teachers all work hard. 或用于第一助动词之后,如:The boys have all been waiting for their mothers.

almost 

[误] Nearly nobody thinks he is right.

[正] Almost nobody thinks he is right.

[析] nearly与almost是近意词,其含意差别不大,但是与否定词连用时要用almost, 例如:She brought almost no money with her. 此句中的almost不能用nearly替换。

alone 

[误] The old man lived lone but he didn't feel lonely.

[正] The old man lived alone, but he didn't feel lonely.

[析] alone, lone, lonely 三个词全具有"孤单、孤独"之意。但其用法不同:lone可以作定语,而alone则只能作表语,lonely则多指感情上与感觉上的孤独。

already 

[误] We are already for the work.

[正] We are all ready for the work.

[析] already 是副词,其意为"已经",如:He already knew about it. 而all ready为形容词意为"准备好"。

already yet 

already多用于肯定句中,例如:The students have already finished the work. 而yet则多用于疑问句与否定句中,如:Have you finished it yet? I haven't finished it yet.

also 

[误] I didn't find the dictionary also.

[正] I didn't find the dictionary either.

[析] 作为"也"讲,在否定句中要用either而不能用also.

also too 

also与too都可用在肯定句中表示"也",但also通常用于be动词或情态动词之后,如:I can also do it myself. 而too一般放于句尾。I'll attend his class, too.

always 

[误] Always he asked himself why he had come here.

[正] He always asked himself why he had come here.

[析] always一般不能用于句首,它在一般句中的位置是于动词之前第一助动词之后,如:I've always thought he is honest. 又如:He is always late.

among 

[误] If the three apples are divided among the two boys how much will each receive?

[正] If the three apples are divided among the three boys how much will each receive?

[析] among常用于三个事物或人物之间,而between则多用于两者之间。

an 

[误] This is an useful dictionary.

[正] This is a useful dictionary.

[析] 详见a条。

and 

[误] He did not speak loudly and clearly.

[正] He did not speak loudly nor clearly.

[误] Our school is not in New York and Chicago, but in Boston.

[正] Our school is not in New York or Chicago, but in Boston.

[析] "和"这一概念在肯定句中应用and,但在否定句中则要用or

angry 

[误] My mother was angry to me.

[正] My mother was angry with me.

[误] He was angry with what I said.

[正] He was angry at what I said.

[析] 要注意be angry后面如果接人,表示"对某人生气不满"时应用be angry with somebody. 但要接事物时要用be angry at something.

another 

[误] I have two sisters, one in America and another in English.

[正] I have two sisters, one in America and the other in English.

[析] 要注意英语中another, other, the other, the others, others的不同用法,现分别说明如下:another作形容词其意为:泛指的另一个或再一个,别的,类似的。一般在句中作定语,如: This is not good enough, please show me another one. another还可以作为代词用,如:One student said:"I want to play baskball."another said:"I want to play football."other作形容词其意为"泛指其余的,别的"。如:I have other books besides these. 又如:Ask some other people please. the other则为特指,作形容词时其后面可接单数或复数名词,如:She has two flowers. One is white, the other one is yellow. (特指,单数)又如:There are fifty students in our class, twenty five are boys, the other students are girls. (特指,复数)但当the other作为代词时,它代表的可以是单数,也可以是复数,如:He has a book in one hand, and a pen in the other. (单数)又如:There are some people in the room. Four are girls, the other(复数)are boys. 要注意的是当the other作主语时,其后面的谓语动词要视具体情况而定,它可能是单数,也可能是复数。others则只能作代词,其意为other ones即为:泛指某些,某一部分人或物,如:Each of us must think of others. 而the others只能作为代词,它是特指某一些人或物,如:I know only one or two of the students; the others are unknown to me.

answer 

[误] Someone is knocking at the door. Please reply the door bell.

[正] Someone is knocking at the door, Please answer the door bell.

[析] answer与reply是近意词,作为及物动词用时有时二者是可以互换的,如:The student answered/replied that he wanted to watch TV. 但在某些特定场合则不易互换。作为应答之意时则多用answer,如:You should answer to your name. Please answer my letter as soon as possible. Answer my question in English.

any 

[误] Do you have some questions?

[正] Do you have any questions?

[析] some一般要用于肯定句,而any则用于否定句或疑问句。

[误] China is larger than any other countries in Asia.

[正] China is larger than any other country in Asia.

[析] 要注意any other 其后要跟单数名词,但any of the other 其后要接复数名词。China is larger than any of the other countries in Asia.

[误] Here are some books; you can choose anyone of these.

[正] Here are some books; you can choose any one of these.

[析] anyone只能指人,而any one即可指人 也可以指物。

around 

[误] The nine planets go around of the sun.

[正] The nine planets go around the sun.

[析] around后面不要再加介词,如:The sun shines all around us.

around round 

作介词用的around与round通常可以互换,只不过美语常用around,而英语常用round,例如:You can see the post office round/around that corner. (绕过那个弯你就可以看到邮局。但是一定要区别它们的不同之处:round可以用作形容词、副词、介词、动词、名词;而around只能用作副词或介词。例如:The post office is just round (around) the house (用作介词). He has round face (用作形容词). The river rounded the stones. (用作动词)

arrive 

[误] I arrived Beijing the day before yesterday.

[正] I arrived in Beijing the day before yesterday.

[正] I reached Beijing the day before yesterday.

[误] He arrived in the school at 11∶00.

[正] He arrived at the school at 11∶00.

[析] arrive为不及物动词,当到达的是较大的地理区域时用介词in,而到达较小的地方时则用at, 如:arrive in New York, arrive at the village.

arrive reach get 

arrive如上所述是不及物动词,而reach则是及物动词。如:How did you reach the school this morning? 而get可用作不及物动词,作"到达"讲时其后面多与to连用。如:When did you get to New York?

as 

[误] This man works in the bank for a manager.

[正] This man works in the bank as a manager.

[析] as与for有时是可以通用的。如:This room is used as (for) a classroom. 但是用来指官衔、职位时只能用as.

[误] My brother is so taller as Tom.

[正] My brother is as tall as Tom.

[析] as… as之间只能用形容词与副词的原级,而不能用比较级。在否定句中可以用so…as,也可以用as…as,但在肯定句中只能用as…as,如:He is not so tall as Tom.

[误] I'll give him the note as soon as he will come.

[正] I'll give him the note as soon as he comes.

[析] as soon as所引导的状语从句中应使用一般时态表示将来。

ask 

[误] The student asked a question to the teacher.

[正] The student asked the teacher a question.

[析] ask应接双宾语,即ask somebody something.

[误] They asked some books.

[正] They asked for some books.

[析] 向某人要求某物时应用ask somebody for something或ask for something from somebody, 如:He asked his mother for some money. 或He asked for some money from his mother.

asleep 

[误] He is deeply asleep.

[正] He is fast asleep.

[析] 要讲"熟睡",就要用fast来修饰asleep。另外, 在英语中一般不讲somebody is sleeping而要用asleep。关于睡觉这一词的惯用法还有:go to sleep(如:The old man usually goes to sleep at ten.), fall asleep(如:I fell asleep at English class yes terday.)

at 

[误] It will really do you no harm quite.

[正] It will really do you no harm at all.

[析] at all和quite的汉语意思均为"全然"、"确定的",但at all适用于否定句,例如: -I'm sorry. I'm late.

-No trouble at all. 

又如:I don't think it is right at all. 而quite则适用于肯定句,例如:He is quite a good teacher.

[误] The children play football for lunch.

[正] The children play football at lunch.

[析] 英语中的at lunch为"在吃午饭时"。这种惯用法还有at work(在工作),at table(在吃饭),at desk(在学习)。而for lunch则是为午饭而准备的食物,又如:We had some milk for breakfast.

[误] There is a post office in the corner of the street.

[正] There is a post office at the corner of the street.

[析] at the corner是指墙外面的角,而in the corner是指建筑物内部的角落。例如:There is a computer in the corner of the room. There is a street lamp at the corner of the street.

at in on 

在表示时间时用来表示具体钟点用at,如:He will be back at six. 表示一天的上、 下午时要用in,如:I usually get up at six in the morning. 但要注意的是,in the morning和in the afternoon这两个词组中如果加入了任何修饰词,其介词要换为on, 如:on the cold morning, on the hot afternoon.又如:See you on Monday morning. 如讲到具体的某一天,要用on, 如:on Sunday, 如:I usually want to visit my mother on Sundays. 在谈到周、月、季、年时要用in,如:All the children will be happy in Easter week. He was born in July. 但要注意在泛指圣诞节、复活节、感恩节时都用at, 如:Where are you going at Easter.

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