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初中英语词汇学习常见错误分析(B)  

2010-03-20 08:21:02|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初中英语词汇学习常见错误分析(B)

B
back 
[误] I'm sorry. I have to back home.
[正] I'm sorry. I have to go back home.
[正] I'm sorry. I have to go home.
[析] back用作"回到(某处)"之意,不是动词。
be 
[误] Where do you from?
[正] Where are you from?
[析] "你从何处来"应为Where are you from?或Where do you come from? 但要注意这两句话均是问对方从哪个国家来的。要是口语中问"你是从什么地方来?"应讲Where did you come from? 回答用I came from the library.
beat 
[误] We have won your class.
[正] We have beaten your class.
[正] We have won the game.
[析] win是胜过之意,它是及物动词,但其后的宾语只能接比赛、战争、奖品、奖金的名称,如:Which team won the football match? 而beat指打败对手、敌人……如:My brother beat me at poker.(要注意的是,beat的过去式与原形相同,而过去分词为beaten)。
[误] The ball beat me badly.
[正] The ball hit me badly.
[误] He used to hit the little boy black and blue.
[正] He used to beat the little boy black and blue.
[析] beat指打击多次,而hit则为击中对方的一次性打击。
beautiful 
[误] He is a beautiful boy.
[正] He is a handsome boy.
[析] 我们可以讲She is a beautiful girl. This is a beautiful park. 但要讲男人的"英俊"时要用handsome.
because 
[误] The reason why I was late is because I was ill.
[正] The reason why I was late is that I was ill.
[误] Because it was Sunday, so the park was crowded.
[正] Because it was Sunday the park was crowded.
[析] 这种错误是因为中文的习惯与英语的表述法不同,中文常讲我来晚了的原因是因为我病了,而英文中的第二个因为要用that代替。又因中文常讲因为……所以……,而英文中用了因为就不能再用所以了,同样用了"所以"也就不要再用"因为"一词。例如:Because we study hard, we passed the exam easily. 或者:We study hard so we passed the exam easily.
because because of 
because后要接从句,例如:We like physics because we can learn a lot of new ideas. 而because of后要接名词作介词宾语,如:He is not at school because of the illness.
before 
[误] We have two hours to kill before we will go home.
[正] We have two hours to kill before we go home.
[析] kill time意为"消磨时光"。
英语状语从句中要用一般现在时表示将来的动作。如:If it rains we will not go to the park.
[误] I did this work two days before.
[正] I did this work two days ago.
[析] 用ago组成的时间状语其主句中的谓语动词要用过去时,而before引起的时间状语其主句中的谓语动词多用完成时,如:I has done this work a few days before.
before long long before 
before long是"不久"之意,例如:I shall go to America before long. 而long before则是"很久很久"之意,如:We knew this teacher long before we saw him. (我们在看到这位老师之前很久就知道他了。)
begin 
[误] The meeting will begin from Monday.
[正] The meeting will begin on Monday.
[误] The film has begun for ten minutes.
[正] The film has been on for ten minutes.
[析] begin是瞬间动词,所以它的完成时态不能接表示一段时间的状语,如:The film has begun. 这句话是对的,即"电影已经开始"。但要讲已经开始10分钟了则要用has been on即"上演了10分钟"。
begin start 
begin与start两词后面加不定式或动名词都可以,且意思并无区别,但在表达习惯时接动名词的用法较多,如:How old wern you when you first started learning English?但这两个词的进行时态中则多用不定式,如:I was beginning to get hungry. 但如果句子的主语是物而不是人,则多用不定式,如:The ice began to melt. It started to get dark before we got to school. 当动词是表达某种心理状态时,要用不定式,如:The student began to understand his mistakes.
[误] They study hard in the class from the beginning to the end.
[正] They study hard in the class from beginning to end.
[析] from beginning to end是习惯用法,即自始至终,不要加冠词,但如单独使用则要加冠词,例如:At the beginning,the teacher gave us an exam.
behind 
[误] He missed the class because he was behind the time.
[正] He missed the class because he was behind time.
[析] behind time一短语意为"晚了",而behind the times意为"落后于时代"。behind是介词同时又是副词,如Come out from behind the door(介词). He's a long way behind(副词). He fell behind with his classmates(副词).
below 
[误] What's that below the chair.
[正] What's that under the chair.
[析] under意为"正下方",而below意为"比……低",或指"在下游"。如:There is a fall below the river. (河的下游有一个瀑布。)其反义词为over,如:There is a big plane flying over the city. 但在"下面的例子"一表达语中则要用the example below, 而不要用under.
beside 
[误] The students stood besides the teacher.
[正] The students stood beside the teacher.
[误] I study English beside Chinese.
[正] I study English besides Chinese.
[析] beside意为"在……旁边",而besides是"除……以外(还如何)"。
beside by near 
beside意为"在……旁",如:There is a tall tree beside the river. by多指"倚、靠"、"沿着"之意,如:She is standing by the window. near多用来表示两地间距离不远,如:There is a post office near our school.
better 
[误] You had better to do it at home.
[正] You had better do it at home.
[误] You hadn't better wake me up at six.
[正] You had better not wake me up at six.
[析] had better在肯定句中为"应该作某事",其后加不带to的不定式,而在否定句中应用had better+not+动词原形。在简答语中had常省略为'd,如:You'd better not. 又如:
Let's go first. No, we'd better not.
between 
[误] Among the two trees there is a space of the feet.
[正] Between the two trees there is a space of the feet.
[析] 两者之间多用between,三者或三者以上之间则用among.
[误] You must choose between this club or that club.
[正] You must choose between this club and that club.
[析] 在两个之间作出选择要用between…and…,而不能用between…or….
big 
[误] There was a big rain last night.
[正] There was a heavy rain last night.
[析] 大雨在英语中只能用a heavy rain而不要用a big rain. 
bit 
[误] He is a bit fool. 
[正] He is a bit of a fool.
[析] a bit可以作程度副词,与a little相同,但它用于名词前应用a bit of, 而用于形容词前则应用a bit,如:I'm a bit tired, 而其简答的否定句应为Not a bit, (一点儿也不。)又如:
-Do you mind if I open the door?
-Not a bit. 
black 
[误] The children became black after swimming in the sea.
[正] The children became sunburned after swimming in the sea.
[析] 因太阳照晒而皮肤变黑,不应用black而应用sunburned, sun colour或dark.
[误] The girl has black eyes and black
hair.
[正] The girl has dark eyes and black hair.
[析] 英语中black eyes的意思是被打得发青的眼睛。
[误] The Europeans like red tea.
[正] The Europeans like black tea.
[析] 红茶在英文中应为black tea. 这种惯用法还有:black and blue(鼻青脸肿,青一块紫一块);blackandwhite(黑白电视片)。go black意为"在失去知觉时眼前一片黑暗";look black意为"情况不妙,前景暗淡"。如:After the fight he was black and blue.On TV, I like colour for something and blackandwhite for others.
body 
[误] Going to bed earlier and getting up earlier is good for your body.
[正] Going to bed earlier and getting up earlier is good for your health.
[析] 中文常讲对你身体有利,而英文中则讲对你健康有利。
borrow 
[误] May I lend some books from the library?
[正] May I borrow some books from the library?
[误] How long can I borrow it?
[正] How long can I keep it?
[析] 英语中有三个词都可译为"借",但意义各不相同如:"借入"是borrow,其常用句型结构是borrow something from somebody,这是个瞬间性动词,不可与表示延续的时间状语连用。例如:The students want to borrow some books from the library. "借出"用lend,即借给别人东西。其常用句型是lend somebody something, 或lend something to somebody.例如:Could you lend us your dictionary?或Could you lend your dictionary to us? 它也是瞬间性动词,也不能与延续的时间状语连用。keep则是延续性动词,可以和表示长时间段的时间状语连用,也可与how long等疑问词连用,如:You can keep it for three days.
born (bear的过去分词)
[误] I born in Shanghai.
[正] I was born in Shanghai.
[误] He was born from Greek parents.
[正] He was born of Greek parents.
[析] "出身于……样的家庭"不要作from而要用of,例如:He was born of a poor family.
both 
[误] They both are students.
[正] They are both students.
[误] They refuse both to answer this question.
[正] They both refuse to answer this question.
[析] both作同位语时,一般要用在be动词之后实意动词之前。
[误] I know his both parents.
[正] I know both his parents.
[误] The both brothers were students.
[正] Both the brothers were students.
[正] Both brothers were students.
[析] 当both与形容词性物主代词my, his, her等以及定冠词the连用时,都应将这些词置于both之后。另外,在与定冠词连用时the可以省略。
[误] Both of my parents are not at home.
[正] Neither of my parents are at home.
[误] Both of your answers are not right.
[正] Neither of your answers is right.
[正] Both your answers are wrong.
[析] both不能用于否定句中作主语。表示"两者都不"时要用neither;但作宾语时both与either则都对,但要注意句意有所不同。例如:I cannot give both of the books to you. (我不能将两本书全给你。)而I cannot give either of the books to you. (两本书中哪本书也不能给你。)
bring 
[误] Please bring this dictionary to Mr Brown.
[正] Please take this dictionary to Mr Brown.
[误] Next time, please take your little sister here.
[正] Next time, please bring your little sister here.
[析] 英语中bring是"带来",而take是"带走"。还有一个词fetch, 表示"到某处去把某物取、接回来"。如:Please fetch the doctor at once.
business 
[误] My father went to Shanghai for business.
[正] My father went to Shanghai on business.
[析] on business出差
busy 
[误] The students were very busy to prepare for the exam.
[正] The students were very busy preparing for the exam.
[析] be busy doing something为"忙于作某事"
[误] The students were busy for the exam.
[正] The students were busy with the exam.
[析] busy直接接名词时应用with.
but 
[误] He couldn't help but realizing that he was wrong.
[正] He couldn't help but realize that he was wrong.
[误] She couldn't help to cry when she saw her mother.
[正] She couldn't help crying when she saw her mother.
[析] couldn't help其后应接动名词,表示情不自禁的动作,但couldn't help but后面要加动词原形即省to的不定式,所以前一句应译为"他才真正认识到他错了。"

buy 
[误] I have bought this dictionary for three years.
[正] I have had this dictionary for three years.
[析] buy是截止性(即瞬间)动词,它可以有完成时,如:I have bought this dictionary. 但是不能与表示较长的时间状语连用。如要讲我这本字典已买了3年了则要用have had这一结构即我拥有这本字典已3年了。
by 
[误] The boy shot the cat by a gun.
[正] The boy shot the cat with a gun.
[误] He came to school by a taxi this morning.
[正] He came to school by taxi this morning.
[析] 作为某种运输手段来讲,by与名词间不能有冠词,如:by car, by bike, by air等。如有了冠词或其他修饰词,则应用别的相应的介词,如:"我们今天早上是乘他的车来的"一句应译为:We came here in his car this morning.与by结合而成的词组很多,常用的有:by the way顺便说说;by hand手工制作;by oneself独自地;by no means决不。

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