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初中英语词汇学习常见错误分析(C)  

2010-03-21 08:46:21|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初中英语词汇学习常见错误分析(C)

C
call 
[误] I'll call at Mr Brown.
[正] I'll call on Mr Brown.
[误] I'll call on Mr Brown's home.
[正] I'll call at Mr Brown's home.
[析] 作"拜访"讲时,at后面接访问地点,而on后面接访问的人。
 call on drop in visit 
call on比较正式的为公务的访问,如:We were called on by the old students. 而drop in则是比较随便的走走,顺便拜访,如:If you're free, drop in. 而visit则是更正式的外交访问或友好往来,如:My school's headmaster will visit America next week.
can 
[误] A blind man can not judge colours.
[正] A blind man cannot judge colours.
[误] I cann't call for you at ten.
[正] I can't call for you at ten.
[析] can的否定形式应为cannot或can't.
[误] It's only six o'clock. That mustn't be the postman.
[正] It's only six o'clock. That can't be the postman.
[析] must用来表示一种肯定的推断,如:She must have some problems. She keeps crying. 但在否定句中则要用can't, 要表示对过去的推测则要用"must+have+过去分词"的表达法,如:The lights have gone out.A fuse must have blown.而对过去的否定推测则多用"can't+have+过去分词",如:I don't think he can have heard you. Call again.
[误] We could not help to laugh at once.
[正] We could not help laughing at once.
[正] We could not help but laugh at once.
[析] "couldn't help+动名词"表示禁不住做了某事。但could not help but与could not but后面要加不带to的不定式,意思都是不得不去做某事.如:You could not (help) but respect him.
can be able to 
can与be able to都可以用来表示能力,但can只有现在时与过去时,be able to则可用任何时态,如:He will be able to teach the child. 但要表示经过努力而达到的一次性动作则只能用be able to,如:He finally was able to jump over 210 meters. 或:The plane was able to fly over the mountain. 但要注意的是这两个词都没有进行时态,而be able to后面不接不定式的被动态。
can could 
can与could都可以用在现在时的口语中,只是用could更为礼貌,语气更委婉。如:Could you tell us a story?
care 
[误] I don't care coffee.
[正] I don't care for coffee.
[误] Take care for your steps.
[正] Take care of your steps.
[析] care for是"对某物感兴趣",而care of是"关心,要当心某事",如:She didn't care for him. Take care of what you are doing.
[误] I don't care where we will go if it doesn't rain.
[正] I don't care where we go if it doesn't rain.
[析] 在it doesn't matter, I don't care, I don't mind, 及in case引出的状语从句后面要用现在时表示将来。如:I've got a football in case we have time for a game.
change 
[误] I want to change my camera with that one.
[正] I want to change my camera for that one.
[析] change for为"以某物为交换物"。而change with则是"随……而变",如:The wood's colour changed with the season.
cheap 
[误] A teacher's salary is generally very cheap.
[正] A teacher's salary is generally very low.
[析] 工资的高低要用low,cheap是指价格便宜,如果要讲物美价廉则要用not expensive, 如:This car is not expensive.
choose 
[误] We each had to have a choose of A or B.
[正] We each had to have a choice of A or B.
[析] choice是名词,而choose是动词。
class 
[误] The class is watching TV.
[正] The class are watching TV.
[析] class作主语时,如果作为整体讲则应用单数形式的谓语动词,如:The class was more than forty in number. 如考虑到具体的每个成员时则应用复数形式的谓语动词,如:The class are, in general, very bright.
clean 
[误] Sorry, I didn't bought it here. I cleanly forgot.
[正] Sorry, I didn't bought it here. I clean forgot.
[析] clean可以作为副词讲,其意为"完全",而cleanly则意为"正确地"、"干净利落地",如:The knife doesn't cut cleanly. 而clean作为形容词讲时意为"清洁的"、"干净的",如:Her face is not clean now.
clever 
[误] I'm not clever in English.
[正] I'm not clever at English.
[析] clever at是固定搭配,表示在某方面有特长。
close 
[误] It is cold outside. Please keep the door close.
[正] It is cold outside. Please keep the door closed.
[析] 这里的close是动词,意为"关闭",而keep后要加形容词,所以要用close的过去分词形式closed作形容词。作形容词用的close意为"近的"、"亲密的"。
[误] Come closely so that I can see you.
[正] Come close so that I can see you.
[误] Good teaching and good testing are close related.
[正] Good teaching and good testing are closely related.
[析] close,closely同样可以作副词用,但其意义不同,close是"靠近"、"接近"之意,而closely则是"紧密"、"严密"、"密切"之意。
[误] My school was quite close from my home.
[正] My school was quite close to my home.
[析] "与……接近"是close to…,例如:
He was close to fifty.
There is a busstop close to the station.
close shut turn 
shut与close是同义词,如close the door或shut the door. 但要讲把某人关在门外时则只能用shut somebody out而不能用close,因shut语气较强,并含有隔离之意。而turn off是指关上电视、电灯、煤气之类,有切断之意。
cloth 
[误] The children wear very good cloth to go to school.
[正] The children wear very good clothes to go to school.
[误] I need a lot of clothing.
I'm going to make a new cloth. 
[正] I need a lot of cloth.
I'm going to make a new dress. 
[析] cloth是"布"、"布料",没有复数形式。一块布料是a piece of cloth, 而clothes统指衣服,是复数名词,"一套衣服"要讲a suit of clothes, 如果是"一件件衣服"应讲shirt, dress, sweater等。而clothing是衣物的总称,是不可数名词。例如:This clothing is needed in warm countries.Her clothes are made of fine cloth.英语中的dress是指比较正式的服装,如a school dress(校服),a student dress(学生套装),a working dress(工作服)。
coffee 
[误] Please give me two waters.
[正] Please give me two coffees.
[正] Please give me two cups of water.
[析] 虽然coffee, water, tea等都是物质名词,但是只有coffee可用coffees取代若干杯coffee,而其他的却不行,其前要加a cup of或a glass of.
colour(color) 
[误] Colours of flowers are red, yellow and white.
[正] Flowers are red, yellow and white.
[析] 中文的"花的颜色有红色、黄色和白色",若译为英文Colours of flowers are…,就显得重复了。
[误] I like green colour.
[正] I like green.
[正] I like colour green.
[析] colour green中的colour是green的同位语,所以这种说话方式英语是可以接受的。
come 
[误] I came across with an old friend in the street yesterday.
[正] I came across an old friend in the street yesterday.
[析] come across是"偶然碰见、遇见",要直接加宾语,如:I've just come across a beautiful poem in this magazine.
[误] Where do you come from?
I come from the station. 
[正] Where did you come from?
I came from the station. 
[正] Where do you come from?
I come from China. 
[析] Where do you come from?意为"你是什么地方的人?"而Where did you come from?则是"你从何处来?" 
[误] The stars are coming out from the cloud.
[正] The stars are coming out of the cloud.
[析] come out of意为"从……地方出来"。
come in come into enter 
come in与come into的意义相同,但come into后面要加宾语,而come in后面不用宾语。如I found someone came into my room. The door opened and the child came in.
enter常作为及物动词使用,如:The bus entered the English tunnel.
congratulate 
[误] I want to congratulate you for your success with all my heart.
[正] I want to congratulate you on your success with all my heart.
[析] 动词congratulate somebody on something是"向某人祝贺某事"。其名词congratulation在用时一般要用复数,如:I offered him my congratulations on his success.
又如:Congratulations!
cook 
[误] My father is a good cooker.
[正] My father is a good cook.
[析] 很多动词加上er则变为执行该动作的一种人,如workworker,teachteacher. 但cook即是动词"做饭",同时名词也是"厨师"。而cooker则是"厨具"、"炊具"之意。如:I will cook the dinner. I bought a good press cooker(高压锅)。
corner 
[误] There is a post office in the corner of the street.
[正] There is a post office at the corner of the street.
[误] A girl sat at the corner of the room.
[正] A girl sat in the corner of the room.
[析] in the corner是在建筑物内部的角上,而at the corner是在外部的角上,如:There is a big tree at the corner of the building.
cost 
[误] I cost ten dollars for the book.
[正] I spent ten dollars on the book.
[误] I cost two hours to do my homework.
[正] It took me two hours to do my homework.
[析] cost, spend. take都可以作"花费"讲,但用法不同。cost的用法是"something+cost+somebody+时间或金钱",如:The book cost me ten dollars. spend的用法是"somebody+spend+时间+(in)doing something",如:I spent two hours (in) writing this book. 或"somebody+spend+金钱+on something",如:I spend two dollars on this book. 而take的用法则要用逻辑主语it:"It+takes+somebody+时间+to do something", 如:It took me an hour to clean the classroom.
country 
[误] You can find cows in a country.
[正] You can find cows in the country.
[析] country即可作"国家"讲,也可作"农村"讲。当作"农村"讲时,一定要加定冠词,而且只有单数形式。例如:
[误] Farmers live in the countries.
[正] Farmers live in the country.
[析] 但作为"国家"讲时则可有单、复数形式,例如:Japan is an Asian country. Japan, China, and India are Asian countries.另外,country一般指的是地理概念上的国家,如:New Zealand is an agricultural country. 而nation多指民族组成的国家,如:The Chinese nation(中华民族)。state多侧重于政权方面的区域、国家范围,如:the state farm(国营农场)。
cross 
[误] There are traffic lights at the cross.
[正] There are traffic lights at the crossing.
[析] cross作为名词讲时是十字架、十字形的东西,如:Red Cross(红十字会)。
[误] The little boy is going to across the street.
[正] The little boy is going to cross the street.
[析] across是副词或介词,但不能作动词用。
cross pass 
cross是指横过某地,如:He crossed the square. 而pass则强调从某物体旁经过,如:I mailed some letters when I passed the post office.
crowd 
[误] The room soon was crowded by people.
[正] The room soon was crowded with people.
[析] crowded在这句话中应作为形容词,所以这句话不是被动语态而是系表结构,如:The room was crowded with books.
cup 
[误] A silver glass was given to the winner.
[正] A silver cup was given to the winner.
[误] My mother was looking for the whisky cup.
[正] My mother was looking for the whisky glass.
[析] glass一般指由玻璃制成的器皿,而cup多指用陶瓷或金属制成的杯子,且cup尤其用在奖杯上。喝酒多用的是玻璃制成的杯子,如我们讲I drink a glass of wine at supper. 而不讲I drink a cup of wine at supper.

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