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形式主语和形式宾语讲解与练习  

2010-03-05 20:18:19|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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形式主语和形式宾语讲解与练习

 形式主语或形式宾语指的是:当不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句在某个句子中作主语或宾语时,为保持句子结构前后平衡,避免头重脚轻,因此常用it作形式主语或形式宾语置于句首或句中动词之后,而将真正的主语放在句尾。此时it只起先行引导作用,本身无词义。主要有: 

    一、it作形式主语

    It 作形式主语的常见句型:

    ① It + be + 形容词 + to do sth. / doing / that ….

    e.g. It is very important to learn a foreign language. (学一门外语非常重要。)

    It is useless crying over the spilt milk. (覆水难收。)

    It was really surprising that she married a man like that.

    (她嫁给那样的男士真让人惊讶。)

    ② It + be +名词词组 + doing / that ….

    e.g. It is no good telling lies. (撒谎没好处。)

    It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film yesterday.

    (你昨天没看成那部电影真遗憾。)

    It is a truth that there would be no new China without the Communist Party.

    (没有共产党就没有新中国,这是毋庸质疑的。)

③ It + be + 过去分词 + that ….

    该句型常见动词有:say, hope, think, suppose, expect, report, know, believe, decide, etc.

    e.g. It is said that they have invented a new type of computer.

    (据说他们发明了一种新型电脑。)

    It is believed that China will become one of the strongest countries in the world.

    (大家都相信中国将会步入世界强国之列。)

    It was reported that more than 170 thousand people died in the 2004 tsunami.

    (据报道,至少有十七万人在2004年那场海啸中丧生。)

    ④ It + seems / appears / happens等不及物动词+ that ….

    e.g. It seems that he enjoys pop songs very much. (似乎他非常喜欢流行歌曲。)

    It appears that Tom might change his mind. (看来汤姆可能会改变主意。)

    ⑤ 若句子是疑问形式,就只能用it作形式主语。

    e.g. Does it matter much that they won’t come tomorrow?

    (他们明天不来很重要吗?)

    Is it true that he will go abroad next week? (他下周出国是真的吗?)

 ⑥ It + takes + (sb.) + some time + to do sth.

    这是一个表示“(某人)花多少时间干某事”的句型,其中it是形式主语,代替后面的不定式(to do sth.),句型中的sb.也可以省略。

    e.g. It took me some time to read the reading materials.

    (我花了一些时间才读完那段阅读材料。)

    It took him fourteen hours to go to New Zealand from Shanghai by plane.

    (从上海乘飞机去新西兰花了他14小时。)

    How long does it take you to go to Beijing from Qingdao by train?

    (从青岛坐火车到北京一般要花多久时间?)

    I am not sure, but I think it takes at least nine hours to get there.

    (我不能肯定,但估计至少要九个钟头才能到那儿。)

    二. it作形式宾语

    在句中,通常会在宾语补足语前使用形式宾语it,而将真正的宾语移至句末,其基本结构为“动词+it+宾语补足语+不定式(动名词或从句)”:

    I find it difficult to do the job well. 我发现做好这件事不容易。

    I think it best that you should stay here. 我认为你最好住这儿。

    We think it no use complaining. 我们认为抱怨是没有用的。

 通常意义的形式宾语其真正宾语为不定式、动名词、从句等且其后跟有宾语补足语时的情形,即用于“动词+it+宾语补足语+真正的宾语”这样的结构,但以下几类形式宾语却比较特殊,其后没有宾语补足语。

    ① 当不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句在复合宾语结构中作某些动词的宾语时 (如think, make, find, consider, feel, suppose等);

    e.g. They found it pleasant that they worked with us Chinese.

    (他们发现与我们中国人一起工作很愉快。)

    I don’t feel it difficult to understand the Special English.

    (我觉得理解英语特别节目并不难。)

    He makes it a rule never to borrow money. (他立志决不向别人借钱。)

    I think it no need talking about it with them.

    (我认为没必要跟他们谈。)

    ② 某些表示“喜、怒、哀、乐”的动词,如like, enjoy, love, hate等,往往不能直接接宾语从句;

    e.g. I don’t like it that he’s so lazy. (我不喜欢他那么懒惰。)

I hate it when my mother asks me to eat eggs.  (我讨厌母亲要我吃鸡蛋。)

    ③ that引导的宾语从句不能直接作介词的宾语;

    e.g. You may depend on it that we shall always help you.

    (尽管放心,我们会随时帮你的。)

    Would you see to it that she gets home early? (你负责保证她早到家,好吗?)

    He insisted on it that he was innocent. (他坚持说自己是无辜的。)

    ④ 由及物动词与介词组成的固定搭配中,宾语从句若作该动词的宾语时,须借用it。

    e.g. I leave it to your own judgement whether you should do it.

    (我让你自己判断这事是否该做。)

    We owe it to you that there wasn’t a serious accident.

    (多亏了你才没有发生严重事故。)

 

三. 形式主语、形式宾语专项练习

1. It's easier _____ than ________.

    A. say, do   B. to say, to do  C. says, does  D. saying, doing

2. It takes me 30 minutes ________ to school by bike every day.

    A. going    B. to go     C. goes      D. go

3. It’s not easy ________ us _________ a foreign language.

    A. for; learning    B. of; learning    C. of; to learn   D. for; to learn

4. Children find___ interesting to play computer games.

    A. that     B. which       C. it      D. it’s

5. Do you think it important _____ computer well?

    A. play    B. plays       C. to play    D. playing

6. Is _______ necessary to complete the design before National Day?

    A. this B. that C. it D. he

7. I don’t think _______ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work.

    A. this   B. that  C. its   D. it

8. Does _______ matter if he can’t finish the job on time?

    A. this B. that C. he D. it

9. Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but _______ didn’t help.

    A. he B. which C. she D. it

10. _______ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.

    A. There     B. This    C. That     D. It

11. I hate _______ when people talk with their mouths full.

    A. it B. that C. these D. them

12. I like _______ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright.

    A. this B. that C. it D. one      

13. _______ happened _______ he is unfit for the office.

    A. This; that    B. That; that   C. It; that      D. He; that

14. We took _______ for granted that they would accept our advice.

    A. that B. this C. it D. them

15. _______ that the scientist will give us a talk next month?

    A. Is true B. Is it true C. It’s true D. It’s truly

16. _______ doesn’t matter much _______ dress you are going to wear.

    A. This; that     B. That; who    C. It; which     D. It; who

17. _______ is going to America for further study.

    A. He is said that  B. People said that he  C. It was said he  D. It is said that he

18. They are good friends. _______ is no wonder that they know each other so well.

    A. This B. That C. There D. It

19. Is _______ possible to fly to the moon in a spaceship?

    A. this B. there C. that D. it

20. She liked _______ when he kissed her.

    A. him B. that C. one D. it

21. _______ will do you good to do some exercise every morning.

    A. It  B. There  C. Those  D. One

22. We think _______ our duty to pay taxes to our government.

    A. that  B. this  C. its  D. it    

23. I’d appreciate ________ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer.         

    A. that         B. it      C. this          D. you

24 . -What do you think made Mary so upset?

       -___ her new bicycle.

    A. As she lostB. Lost    C. Losing D. Because of losing

25. Our monitor suggested _____a discussion of this subject.

    A. to have      B. should have     C. have D. having

26. It’s very kind ___ you ______ me..

    A. for, helping     B. of ,help      C. for, to help   D. of, to help

27  —What do you think of the book?

      -Oh, excellent.It's worth ___a second time.

    A. to readB. to be read     C. reading   D. being read

28. It’s no use _____ forward to ____ from her soon.

    A. to look; to hearB. looking; hearingC. looking; hear   D. look; hear

29. It took the workmen only two hours to finish ________ my car.

    A. repairing B. repair C. to repair D. repaired

30. __________ clean is a safeguard against disease.

    A. To be keeping B. Kept   C. Keep    D. Keeping

 

参考答案

1—5  BBDCC     6—10  CDDDD    11—15  ACCCB

16—20 CDDDD    21—25  ADBCD    26—30 DCBAD

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