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主谓一致讲解与训练  

2010-03-07 12:00:23|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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               主谓一致讲解与训练

        要说清楚这个问题,我们首先要明白什么可以做主语。在英语里,名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、主语从句都可以充当主语,下面我来给大家一一说明。

当主语为名词时,一般这样看:
1.单数可数名词和不可数名词当单数看待。
The water in this lake is clean.
2.集体名词看成整体时谓语动词用单数;把集体名词看成其成员或组成部分时,谓语动词用复数。常见的有下面几个单词:class, family, police (=policemen)
My family is a big one.   我的家庭是个大家庭。
My family are all watching TV. 我的全家人都在看电视。
3.下列名词看似复数形式,但实际是单数意义,谓语动词要用单数,请同学们牢记:news消息,politics政治,physics物理,maths数学。
Physics is very hard to learn well for me. 物理对我来说非常难学好。
4.像裤子、剪刀、眼镜这样的词总是以复数形式出现,谓语动词要用复数。(但是如果它们被a/this/that pair of 修饰看成单数)
A pair of glasses costs quite a lot now. 现在的眼镜很贵。
Your glasses are on the desk. 你的眼镜在课桌上。
His trousers are blue. 他的裤子是蓝色的。
5.用and连接的名词通常是指不同的人或物,谓语动词用复数;但有时用and连接的名词表示同一个人或物,谓语动词就应该用单数。

Air and water are necessary for us. 空气和水是我们的必须。

His brother and sister are both workers. 他的哥哥和姐姐都是工人。

The composer and singer is very famous.

这位作曲家兼歌唱家非常著名。(一个人,and前后只用了一个冠词)

The composer and the singer of the song are here now.

这首歌的曲作者和演唱者现在都在。(两个人,and前后用了两个冠词)

6.“there be”句型中谓语动词的数要由离它最近的名词决定。(there 是引导词,没有意义,主语是be后的名词或代词)

There is a pen and two books on the desk.

There are two books and a pen on the desk.

7.用either…or…,neither…nor…,not only…but also…等连接的名词(或代词)充当主语时,谓语动词的数也是由离它最近的名词(或代词)决定。

Neither Tom nor his classmates are from England.

Neither Tom’s classmates nor Kate is from England.

8.复数名词用作书名时,谓语动词用单数。

The Arabian Nights is one of my favourite books.

《天方夜谭》是我喜欢的书之一。

9.一段时间、一笔钱、一段距离等看成单数。

Five dollars is what I have now. 我只有五美元。

Ten miles is a long walk to me. 步行十英里对我来说是不短的距离。

10.如果名词(或者代词)后有with短语或as well as 开头的短语,只看该名词(或代词)的数。

Li Ming with his classmates often goes to see a film on Sundays.

关于代词,比较难于掌握的是不定代词做主语的情况,下面我把初中容易出错的做一些归纳:
all 指人时看成复数,指物时看成单数。如:
All were here yesterday, but Jim is not here now. 昨天全部人都到了,但今天吉姆没有来。
All goes well. You needn’t worry. 一切都好,你不用担心。
none代替不可数名词做主语时谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词做主语时谓语动词既可以用单数形式,也可以用复数形式。
None of the telephones is(are)working.
电话中没有一部不是坏的。
None of the pupils knew the answer.
学生中谁都不知道答案。

数词做主语的情况:
1.“分数+of+不可数名词”看成单数;“分数+of+可数名词复数”看成复数。
Nearly three-fourths of the surface of the earth is covered by water. 地球表面的近四分之三被水覆盖。
Two-thirds of the students in this college are girls. 这所学院的学生三分之二是女生。

2.在谈到一些数学问题时,把数字看成单数。

One and two is three.

动名词和不定式做主语,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

Talking to people from other parts of the world is a good way to learn geography. 和世界其他地方的人交谈是学习地理的好方法。

To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。

主语从句一律看成单数,例如:

When he will go to visit Beijing has not been decided. 他什么时候去参观北京还没有决定。

Whether he will go there with us is not important. 他是否和我们一起去那不重要。

其它需要注意的:

“the+形容词”表示一类人或者事物,看成复数。

The rich don’t always feel happier than the poor. 有钱人不是总比穷人感觉更快乐。

“the +姓氏的复数形式” 表示“姓….的一家人”,看成复数。

The Chens are very friendly to me.

名词所有格(或者名词性物主代词)单独使用,表示复数意义看成复数,表示单数意义看成单数。

His father is a teacher, but Tom’s is not.

My trousers are black, while Tom’s are blue.

练习:

用所给动词的适当形式填空:

1. An elephant _______  (be) much heavier than a horse.  is

2. Money ________ (not mean) everything.    doesn’t mean

3. Light ______ (go) faster than sound.    goes

4. Class 3 ______  (have) an English class now.   are having

5. Maths _______  (be) my favourite subject. What about you?     is

6. This kind of bike _______ (be) made in Shanghai.      is

7. Water and oil ______   (be) liquid.    are

8. Nearly all of the students ______ (go) to play games on the playground.    go

9. Neither they nor Tom _______  (come) from America.    comes

10. There _____ (be ) some boys playing football on the playground.       are

11. There ______ (be) some good news for you.         is

12. The great politician and militarist (军事家)_____ (be) warmly welcome by the people in his hometown.  was

13. What I know about him _______  (be) that he is from Jiangxi.    is

14. Having enough sleep ______ (be) is very important for us.    is

15. How much _______ (be) one and three?     is

16. Twenty minutes _______  (be) not enough for me to do so much work.     is

17. My telephone number ______ (be) 3366222.   is

18. None of the answers _______ (be) right.   is/are

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