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名词的数讲解与练习  

2010-03-07 11:56:30|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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   名词的数讲解与练习

     可数名词:可以直接以数字计算的名词。如one book、two pens。可数名词有数的变化,即每个名词都有单数和复数两种形式。可数名词可以用两种方式表示具体数量:1、直接在其前加数词;2、在其前加of短语(of+可以用作计量的名词)。如:one egg, two eggs; one basket of eggs, two baskets of eggs
     常见不规则变化的名词
Man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, child-children, fish-fish/fishes, sheep-sheep, ox-oxen(公牛), deer-deer, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese, mouse-mice
以下名词特别容易出错,请注意:stomach胃—stomachs, roof屋顶—roofs, reef暗礁—reefs, belief信仰—beliefs,handkerchief手帕—handkerchiefs/handkerchieves
      只能用来修饰可数名词的表示数量的一些词或短语:
few很少的(表示否定),a few一些(表示肯定),many(许多),how many(多少),a number of(许多的), several几个

     不可数名词:不可以直接以数字计算的名词。不可数名词要表示具体数量,必须借助of短语。如不能说one bread,但是可以说one piece of bread和two pieces of bread。
只能用来修饰不可数名词的表示数量的一些词或短语:
little很少的(表示否定); a little一些(表示肯定),much(许多),how much(多少), a bit of(一些)

既能用来修饰可数名词又能用来修饰不可数名词的表示数量的一些词或短语:
some(一些,用于肯定句), any(一些,用于否定和疑问句)a lot of (许多), lots of(许多)
名词做定语时如何确定它的数:
1.一般情况下名词作定语时,当它所修饰的名词由单数变成复数时,它本身不需要变化,如:two orange trees桔子树,two bus drivers 公共汽车司机,但也有一些例外,如:two men teachers 男教师、a sports meet 运动会,a clothes shop 服装店,a goods train 货运列车
2.“数词+名词”做定语,名词一般用单数形式。如:the Sixth Five-Year Plan 第六个五年计划 a five-year-old boy 一个五岁的男孩

名词作主语时,如何确定它的数(主谓语如何保持数的一致)?
1、单数可数名词和不可数名词当单数看待,如:
That boy is tall.
The water in this lake is clean.
2、集体名词看成整体时谓语动词用单数;把集体名词看成其成员或组成部分时,谓语动词用复数。
My family is a big one.
我的家庭是个大家庭。
My family are all watching TV.
我的全家人都在看电视。

3、下列名词以-s结尾,看似复数形式,但实际是单数意义,谓语动词要用单数,请同学们牢记:news消息,politics政治,physics物理,maths数学

Physics is very hard to learn well for me. 物理对我来说非常难学好。

4、像裤子、剪刀、眼镜这样的词总是以复数形式出现,谓语动词要用复数。

Your glasses are on the desk. 你的眼镜在课桌上。

His trousers are blue. 他的裤子是蓝色的。

5、用and连接的名词通常是指不同的人或物,谓语动词用复数;但有时用and连接的名词表示同一个人或物,谓语动词就应该用单数。

如:His brother and sister are both workers.

他的哥哥和姐姐都是工人。

The composer and singer is very famous. (名词composer和singer都被最前面的一个冠词the修饰,表示一个人两种身份,所以主语应该看成单数)

这位作曲家兼歌唱家非常著名。

比较:The composer and the singer are very famous. 那位作曲家和那位歌唱家都非常著名。

(名词composer和singer分别带有属于自己的冠词,表示两个人,一个是作曲家,一个是歌唱家,所以主语应该看成复数)

6、“there be”句型中谓语动词的数要由离它最近的名词决定。

There is a pen and two books on the desk.

There are two books and a pen on the desk.

7、用either…or…,neither…nor…,not only…but also…等连接的名词(或代词)充当主语时,谓语动词的数也是由离它最近的名词(或代词)决定。

Neither Tom nor his classmates are from England.

Neither Tom’s classmates nor Kate is from England.

8、复数名词用作书名时,谓语动词用单数。

The Arabian Nights is one of my favourite books.

《天方夜谭》是我喜欢的书之一。

表示金钱数额、时间、距离的名词短语,一般看成单数。

Ten miles is a long walk to me. 步行10英里可是一段很长的路程。

Ten dollars is all I have left. 我只剩下10美元。

9、名词后跟with短语或者as well as短语做主语时,起决定作用的是该名词。

The teacher as well as his students is having an English class.

The teacher with his students is having an English class.

10、the+表示姓氏的名词的复数,表示这个姓氏的一家人,当作复数看待。

The Smiths are watching TV.

选择填空(答案为画线部分)

1. Please pass me _____.

A. two glass of water    B. two glasses of waters   C. two glasses of water    D. two glass water

2. They got much ____ from those new books.

A. ideas    B. photos    C.information    D. stories

3. There are a lot of _______ down there but hardly any _______.

A. sheeps, people    B.sheep, people   C. sheeps, peoples     D. sheep, peoples

4. This table is made of __________.

   A.many glass     B.glasses    C.some glasses   D.glass

5. I’d like some water, but he wants _______.

A. two bottle orange   B. two bottles of orange  C. two bottles of oranges D. two bottles of oranges

6. Look at the _______. You can see______ ________ and ________.

A. photos; potatoes, tomatoes, radioes   B. photoes; potatoes, tomatoes, radios

C. photos; potatoes, tomatoes, radios   D. photos; potatos, tomatos, radioes 

7. Cut the apple into ________.

A. halfs   B.halves   C. half

8. Mr. Lin often gives us __________ by e-mail.

A. some good information  B. some good informations  C. good informations    D. a good information

9. There are _____ in the fields. They’re eating grass.

A. a horse     B. much horses     C. many horse     D. many horses

10. Lucy put a lot of _______ in ______ of tea.

A. sugar, the two cup  B. sugars, the two cups  C. sugar,the two cups  D. sugars, two cups

11. How great Dalian Radio and TV center looks!

Yes. That’s one of the greatest ________ in Dalian.

A. building  B. build  C. buildings  D. builds

12. How many ______ has the old farmer got?

A. field    B. sheep     C. mutton     D. cow

13. The little baby has two ________ already.

A.tooth   B.tooths    C.teeth    D.teeths

14. This is an old photo of mine when I ____________.

A.have short hairs      B.had short hairs   C.have short hair    D.had short hair

15. The _______ are going to fly to Beijing.

A.Germen   B.Germany     C.Germanys   D.Germans

16. The _______ has two ___________.

A.boys, watches   B.boy, watch   C.boy, watches   D.boys,watch

17. The boy always stays there for __________.

A.one and half hour   B.one and a half hour   C.one and half hours      D.one and a half hours

18. They are thirsty. Will you please give them _________?

Certainly.

A.some bottles of waters B.some bottles of water  C.some bottle of water  D.some bottle of waters

19. Don’t you think Dalian is one of the most beautiful ________ in China?

A.cities    B.city     C.place      D.towns

20. What can I do for you?

I’m looking for __________.

A.a pair of shoes       B.a pair of T-shirt     C.two pairs of hat    D.two pair of trousers

21. Twelve _______ were hurt, but no _________ were lost in that accident.

A.person; life     B.people; lives   C.peoples; lives    D.persons; life

22. There are ________ on the table.

A.a glass of water   B.a glass of milk     C.two glasses of water      D.a glass of orange

23. There are few _______ in the fridge. Let’s go and buy some peas, carrots and cabbages.

A.vegetables    B.fruit     C.meat    D.eggs

24. Mr. Smith always has ________ to tell us.

A.some good pieces of news  B.some pieces of good news  C.some good piece of news   D.some piece of good news

25. There is a lot of ________ in the box.

A.cake  B.bags of cakes  C.milk   D.bags of milk

26. Jack has ____________.

A.two pieces of breads    B.two pieces of bread   C.two piece of bread

27. What would you like to drink, girls?

__________, please.

A.Two cup of coffee    B.Two cups of coffees   C.Two cups of coffee     D.Two cup of coffees

28. I am thirsty. Would you bring me _______, please?

A.some bread  B.some water  C.some cakes   D.some eggs

29. Some ______ are flying kites near the river.

A.child   B.boy    C.boys     D.childs

30. Look! There are ________ on Ann’s desk.

A.two bottles of orange juice    B.two bottle of oranges juice   C.two bottle of orange juice

31. He had something to write down and asked me for ______.

A.a paper B.some papers  C.some pieces of papers  D.a piece of paper

32. The _____ now is that we have lots of _______ to ask.

A.problem; questions    B.question; problems   C.question; problem     D.problem; question

33. These Germans want to have some _______ for supper, so they decide to catch _________ now.

A.fish, many   B.fishes, much   C.fish, much   D.fishes, many

34. The guide has some new _______. She can show them to us.

 A.rice   B.food    C.jacket    D.pictures

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