注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

深圳英语家教

深圳潜龙家教 www.szqljj.com

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

我来自山清水秀,人杰地灵的湖南,从事英语家教教学,追求卓越人生,真情待人,热心助人,欢迎八方来客光临!

网易考拉推荐

句型转换讲解(主动被动语态 划线提问 同义转换)  

2010-03-08 14:55:06|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

句型转换讲解(主动被动语态 划线提问 同义转换)

一.根据要求改写句子

(四)主动句变被动句

1.主动句变被动句第一步:要看时态,时态必须保持一致。第二步:把主动句的宾语改为被动句的主语,谓语动词由主动形式改为被动形式,主动句的主语成为介词by的宾语,放在句尾。

For example:

People keep sheep for producing wool.

Sheep _______ ______ for producing wool _______ people.

答案解析:在主动句中people 是主语,是动词keep动作的执行者,sheep就是keep的承受者。在变被动语态时,把主动句中的宾语sheep变成被动句中的主语,主动句中的主语变被动句的宾语,其前加介词by。谓语动词变过去分词。故正确答案为:are,kept,by。

2.主动句改为被动句,要注意谓语动词由主动形式变为被动形式时的各种变化,具体有以下几种变化:

一般现在时的被动语态:am/is/are + 过去分词

一般过去时的被动语态:was/were + 过去分词

现在完成时的被动语态:have/has +been + 过去分词

情态动词的被动语态  :can/may/must/...+be + 过去分词

一般将来时的被动语态:will/shall +be + 过去分词

现在进行时的被动语态:am/is/are +being + 过去分词

过去进行时的被动语态:was/were +being+ 过去分词

过去完成时的被动语态:had + been+ 过去分词

For example:(1)Li Lei mended the bike。(改为被动语态)

The bike ___ ____ by Li Lei.

答案解析:根据主句的时态,应转换为一般过去时的被动语态。结构为:was/were +过去分词。由于主语“the bike”是单数,故第一空填was;第二空填:mended.

(2)We should plant trees in spring.(2005年四川考题)

Trees should ____ ______in spring.

解析:本题要求是变成含有情态动词的被动语态,根据结构公式:情态动词+be +过去分词。正确答案为:be +planted。

3. 含有双宾语的主动句改为被动句时,一般把间接宾语改为被动句的主语,或者把直接宾语改为被动句的主语,在be done 后需加to或for。

NOTE:

(1)把直接宾语改为被动句的主语,间接宾语前加介词to的动词有:

send/pass/write/give/show/bring/lend/sell/hand/tell等。

(2)间接宾语前加介词for的动词有:buy/cook/make/order/choose/get/draw等。

For example:My mother bought me a beautiful skirt yesterday.

            I ____ ______ a beautiful skirt by my mother yesterday.

           A beautiful skirt ____bought ______ me by my mother yesterday.

答案解析:第一句是把间接宾语改为被动句的主语;应填:was,bought;第二句是把直接宾语改为被动句的主语,后要在间接宾语前加for,属于固定搭配,即:buy sth .for sb.

4. 在被动句中,感官动词(see,hear,watch等),使役动词(let,make,have等)后作宾语补足语的不定式前不加to,但在被动句中做主语补足语的不定式前必须加上to。

For example:Jim heard his friend sing a song an hour ago。

            His friend ____ ____ _____sing a song by Jim。

答案解析:hear是感官动词,在被动句中后面做主语补足语的不定式前要加to。故正确答案为:was,heard,to。

(五)直接引语变间接引语

在做直接引语变间接引语时必须掌握它的一些规律,下面来归纳一下:

1.变化人称的一般规律:

(1)直接引语中的第一人称变间接引语时,其人称与主句的主语一致。

(2)直接引语中的第二人称变间接引语时,其人称与主句的宾语一致。

(3)直接引语中的第三人称变间接引语时,其人称不变。

For example:

An English teacher asked his students,“Are you interested in my lessons?”

An English teacher asked his students if ____ were interested in _____ lessons.

解析:根据语境,直接引语的第二人称you变间接引语时,其人称与主句的宾语一致,即变为they;直接引语中的第一人称my变为间接引语时其人称与主句的主语一致,即改为his。故正确答案为:they;his。

2.注意时态的变化。一般规律是间接引语的时态相应向前推一个时态。

  直  接  引  语

          间  接  引  语

一般现在时

一般过去时

一般过去时

过去完成时

现在进行时

过去进行时

一般将来时

过去将来时

现在完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

For example:

The teacher said angrily,“Where have you been all these days?”

The teacher asked me angrily where I ____ ______ all those days。

解析:根据直接引语改为间接引语要注意时态变化的原则,现在完成时应变为过去完成时,因此have been变为had been。故正确答案为:had ,been。

3.指示代词的变化。

直接引语中的this变为间接引语时应改为that,复数these改为those.  

For example:

  Tim said to me,“This is the School Computer Center..”

  Tim said to me ____ ______ was the School Computer Center.

分析:句中出现了两个that.第一个that是连接词,第二个that是指示代词。由直接引语中的this而变的。故正确答案为:that; that.

4.时间状语的变化

 时间状语的变化如下表所示:

直  接  引  语

间  接  引  语

now              现在

then              那时

today             今天

that day          那天

this evening        今晚

that evening      那天晚上

yesterday          昨天

the day before     前一天

yesterday morning       昨天上午

the morning before       前一天上午

last night              昨天晚上

the night before            前一天晚上

two days ago           两天前

two days before               两天前

next week             下周

the next week/the following week 第二周

tomorrow             明天

the next day/the following day    第二天

the day before yesterday 前天

two days before                两天前

the day after tomorrow  后天

in two days` time/two days after   两天后

For example:
Jane asked me,“Have you got anything on this evening?”(变间接引语)
Jane asked me ____ I ____ _____ anything on _____.
解析:根据直接引语是一般疑问句来判断连接词为if/whether.故第一空填if/whether;直接引语中的时态为现在完成时时变间接引语时应改为过去完成时,故第二,三空填had ,got;同时时间状语也要作相应的变化,this evening变为that evening. 第四,五空填:that, evening.
5.直接引语变间接引语的引导词与由简单句变为宾语从句一样。有三种情况:that引导陈述句;一般疑问句或反意疑问句用if或whether;特殊疑问句用特殊疑问词来引导。这三种句型的语序都是用陈述语序。
6.直接引语是祈使句,改为间接引语时成为不定式短语,而且谓语动词通常用ask/order等“祈求,命令”的动词。For example:
  Her mother said to her,“Finish your homework before watching TV.”
  Her mother asked her        finish        homework before watching TV.
答案解析:根据直接引语变间接引语的规则,前面的said变为asked,第一空填to;第二空要随宾语的变化而变化,故填her。
NOTE:
直接引语在下列三种情况时,即使主句是过去时,变间接引语时时态仍不变。

a. 表示客观真理的一般现在时.如:

The physics teacher said,“Light travels much faster than sound.”

The physics teacher said ____ light ___ much faster than sound.

解析:直接引语表示的是客观真理,变间接引语时时态不变,仍然用一般现在时,因此第二空填travels;第一空要用that来引导。故填:that.

b. 表示客观事实或经常发生的,习惯性的动作时时态不变。如:

Mike said,“My aunt is a worker.”

Mike said that ____ aunt ____ a worker.

解析:第一空根据语境,把my改为his;第二空填is不变。

c. 直接引语是过去完成时,过去进行时,变间接引语时时态不变。如:

She said,“I had finished working before supper.”

She said that she ____ ______working before supper.

解析:根据直接引语中的时态是过去完成时,变间接引语时不变,所以仍填had ;finished.

(六)单数句子变复数句子

1.单数句子变复数句子就是把句在中的名词或代词变成复数形式。如果主语变成了复数,相应地谓语动词也要注意其变化。如:

 This is an English book.(变复数句子)

  ___ ___ ___ English _____.

解析:主语this应变为these。因此谓语动词由单数is变为复数are; an变为some用在肯定句中。名词book由单数变为books复数形式。

2.在单数句子中,有表示性别的名词修饰名词时,变复数句子时两个名词同时变复数,不是表示性别的名词修饰时只变后面的名词为复数形式。如:

There is a woman teacher in the office.

There are some ______  ______ in the office.

解析:根据句意得知woman在此修饰名词teacher,是表示性别的名词,因此两个名词同时变复数形式。故填:women; teacher.

二.对划线部分提问

    该类型的题目主要是考查学生对疑问句的结构,语序以及某些特定疑问句类型的掌握情况。解答这类题目,正确选择疑问词是关键:考生必须准确把握常见疑问词所提问题的侧重点。在中考中常见的提问句式有以下几种情况:

对主语或表语的人提问时用who...  语序分两种情况:(1)对主语提问时,语序为陈述语序。即:Who+谓语动词+...? (2)对表语提问时,语序为一般疑问句语序。即:

Who+系动词+主语+...?

For example:

Tim looks like _his father.                       

____ _____ Tim _____ like?

解析:在原句中look是系动词,his father 指人做look的表语,对其提问故用who。语序为一般疑问句语序。根据时态是现在时因此助动词用does,系动词looks变为原形look.正确答案为:Who; does ;look.

(2)对宾语人提问用whom,口语中可用who来代替。For example:

We should learn from Comrade Leifeng.

 _____ _____ ____ Learn from?

思路解析:根据题意得知:划线部分做动词短语learn from的宾语,指人。故用特殊疑问词whom或who;在此注意的是第一人称的we变为第二人称的you.因此正确答案为:Whom/who ; should ;you.

2.对物主代词或名词所有格提问,用特殊疑问词whose.    For example:

The teacher is  my brother’s friend. _____ _____ is the teacher?

解析:在本题中名词friend前是一个名词所有格,对此提问应用whose. 句式结构为:Whose+名词+一般疑问句语序?故正确答案为:Whose; friend.

3.对地点提问用where. For example:

The little boys played football on the playground yesterday.(2005年济南考题)

_____ ______The little boys _______ football yesterday?

解析:划线部分的短语是表地点的。因此对此提问用where。句式结构为Where + 助动词+主语+谓语动词原形+...?根据时态得知助动词为did。其正确答案为:Where ;did ;play

4.对定语进行提用which。句型结构公式为:Which +名词+一般疑问句语序? For example:

The girl who is reading English under the tree is my sister.

 _____ ______ is your sister?

解析:本题考查对定语的提问。故用特殊疑问词which+名词girl.正确答案为:Which; girl.

5.对时间提问when/what time. When是对不具体时间提问;what time是对具体时间(点钟)提问;有时对具体时间提问也可用when.     For example:

(1) I arrived in Beijing last week.(对划线部分提问)

      _____ _______You arrive in Beijing?

思路解析:划线部分last week是时间状语,对此提问用when,且为 一般过去时,故助动词为did.其正确答案为:When; did.

(2) We usually get up at half past five in the morning.(对划线部分提问)

      ____ ____ _____You usually get up in the morning?

解析:划线部分是具体时间早上的五点半。因此用特殊疑问词what time.且时态为一般现在时,故助动词为do.其正确答案为:What time ;do.

6.对星期名称提问用what day.句型结构为:What day +一般疑问句语序?   For example:

  It was Monday yesterday.(对划线部分提问)

  _____ _____Was it yesterday?

答案解析:Monday是表示星期名称的词,对此提问用What day.故正确答案为:What day.

7.对颜色提问用特殊疑问词what color…(什么颜色)。结构公式为:what color +一般疑问句语序?   For example:

She likes red clothes.(对划线部分提问)

 ____ _____ _____She ____clothes?

 答案解析:在本题中划线部分是表示颜色的单词,对此提问用what color.结构公式为:What color + be/助动词 +主语 +谓语动词原形?其正确答案为:What , color, does, like.

8.对数量提问有两个特殊疑问词:how many/how much;  how many是对可数名词前的数量进行提问;而how much是对不可数名词前的数量进行提问。除此之外how much还对价钱进行提问。

结构公式:

(1)How many +可数名词复数 + 一般疑问句语序?

(2)How much +不可数名词 +一般疑问句语序?

(3)How much +一般疑问句语序?(对价钱提问)

For example:

1.There are forty workers in the factory.(对划线部分提问)

      ____ _____workers are there in the factory?

2. The computer is 4980  yuan.

 .  ____ _____ is the computer?

3.There is some water in the bottle.

    ______ ______ _______ Is there in the bottle?

答案解析:在(1)中workers是名词复数,对此提问用how many.在(2)中划线部分是价格,因此应用特殊疑问词:how much..。第(3)题是考查对不

可数名词前的数量提问,故用How much +不可数名词 +一般疑问句语序?因此正确答案为:How; much ; water.

9.对方式,程度,身体状况的词提问用特殊疑问词how 。 结构公式为:How + 助动词 +主语 +谓语动词原形?

For example:    They went to the Summer Palace by bus two days ago.

                          ________ _______they ______ to the Summer Palace?

答案解析:本题对方式状语提问。对其提问用how。因原句中的时态为过去时,助动词应用did .那么第三空填went动词原形go.故正确答案为:How; did; go.

10.对时间段提问用how long.(多久)如:for +时间段。since +句子。

For example:

I have taught in a Middle School since I came here.

______ ______ ______ I taught in a Middle School?

答案解析:根据划线部分的题意得知间接的表示的是时间段。因此应用how long.原句是时态为现在完成时,时态不变。正确答案为:How; long; have

11.对将来的时间提问用how soon(多久)如:in+时间段

  We will finish work in four days.   

   ______ _______will you finish work?

答案解析:本题是对将来的时间段提问,故用How soon..

12.对频率副词或短语及单位时间内的次数提问用how often (多久一次)

For example:
  Henry went to visit his grandma every six days.
  ______ _______did Henry go to visit his grandma?
解析:该题考查“Henry 多久去看望grandma 一次?故用how often.正确答案:How often.
13.对重量,距离,长,宽等提问用how.句型为:How + 形容词(heavy/far/long/wide….)
  For example: It’s about ten minutes’ walk from my home to school.
                       ______ _______ is it from your home to school?
解析:本题考查对距离的提问(大约十分钟的路程),对此提问用how far.
答案为:How far.
14.对because引导的原因状语从句提问用why(为什么)
For example:
  Mrs. Read didn’t sleep well last night because the wind made too much noise.
  _______ ________ Mrs. Read _______ well last night?
解析:本题是对because引导的原因状语从句提问应用疑问词why.答案为:Why didn’t sleep.
三. 同义句的相互转换

这是句子改写的一种重要形式,它涉及面广,语言点多,方式灵活,是中考命题的热点。同义句的相互转换除了考查主动句与被动句,复合句与简单句之间的转换,直接引语变间接引语外,还有一些词或短语的替换,仅仅通过替换几个词或短语,而使句子意思不变,就能达到异曲同工之妙。常用方法有以下几种情况:
1.用同义词(组)或近义词(组)改写,如:enjoy oneself = have a good time; over = more than
  2.用反义词(组)改写,如:the same as/different from;  catch up with/fall behind 等
  3.运用派生词或多义词改写:如:
(1)The snow was heavy last night.(改写同义句)
(2)It snowed heavily last night.
思路解析:在(1)中snow是名词在句中做主语,was是be动词后跟形容词做表语。在(2)中snow是谓语动词,动词用副词来修饰。在本题中snow是多义词。
4.用意义相同或相近,但结构不同的句式改写。如:not...so/as...与less...than; than any other与最高级;take(花费)与cost, spend, pay for 之间的改写。两类感叹句的转换;以及it 做形式主语等;
5. 合并分句法,包括用either...or, both...and, neither...nor, not only...but also等关联词合并,注意动词形式的变化。
下面针对例题进行分析:
1.They enjoyed themselves at the party.  They ______ ______ ______

______ at the party.
答案解析:根据题意得知,本题是考查同义词组的转换。Enjoy oneself = have a good time;故正确答案为:had a good time.同义句间的转换时态不变。
2.Tom borrowed a story book from the boy just now.
 The boy _____a story book _____Tom just now.
答案解析:这两个句子的主语做了变化,由此不难看出本题考查的是反义词组的转换。Borrow…from…与lend…. To…之间的转换。
因此正确答案为:lent, to
3.The rain was heavy yesterday evening.  It ______ _______ yesterday evening.
答案解析:句中出现了rain一词,它是多义词,在第一句中做主语,而第二句中做主语的是it,这时rain就做了谓语动词,用副词来修饰。
故答案为:rained, heavily
4.John is the tallest student in his class.   John is ______than ____ _____ _____in his class.
答案解析:本题考查最高级与比较级之间的转换。原句为最高级,要改成比较级。根据句意“班里最高”也就是“比班里其他人都高”
因此答案为:taller, any, other, student.
5.He hasn’t been to France. I haven’t been to France, either.(合成一句,意思不变)
   ____ he _____I ______ been to France.

答案解析:本题考查合并法变同义句。根据句意,我们得知我和他都没去过法国,因此用关联词neither…nor(既不...也不...)合并。在这个短语中谓语动词要跟与nor邻近的主 保持一致。故正确答案为:Neither, nor, have.

模 拟 演 练

1. Are you tired today? My mother asked me.(变为间接引语)

My mother asked me _____ I  ______ tired ____ _____.

2. Are you going to watch the football match next Sunday?” Father asked me.(同1)

Father asked me ______ ______ _______ going to watch the football match the next Sunday.

3. Linda asked John,“Where did you buy this new bicycle?”(同1)

Linda asked John where ______ _____ ______that new bicycle.

4.You should speak to the old people politely.(变被动语态)

The old people should ______ _____ to politely.

5. Who ate my bread? (同4)          

 By whom ______ my bread _______?

6.Miss King saw Bill helping a blind man cross the street yesterday afternoon.(同4)

Yesterday afternoon Bill ____ ____ ____ a blind man cross the street _____ _____ _____.

7.There is a woman dress on the bed in Kate’s bedroom.(改为复数句子)

There ____ _____ _____ _____on the bed in Kate’s bedroom.

8.They are empty boxes.(改为单数句子)

   _____ ______ empty _______.  

9.Not only Jack but also Mike has been to that island.(改为同义句)

   _____Jack _______ Mike ______ been to that island.

10.My cousin didn’t draw as well as Mike.(同9)

  My cousin _____ ______than Mike.

11.It`s time for dinner.(同9)          

     It’s time _____ ______ dinner.

12.The river is 10 meters wide.(对划线部分提问)

      _____ ____ is the river?

13.Henry has stayed there for three years.(同12)    

      _____ ______ has Henry stayed there ?

14.Our school is one kilometer away from the market.(同12)

      _____ ______ is your school from the market?

15.My father often goes to work by bus.(同12)

     ______ _______ _______ your father ______ to work by bus?

答案评析:

1.if/whether; was; that day.本题考查直接引语是一般疑问句时变间接引语的引导词为        if/whether;时态做相应的变化,即一般过去时。时间状语today变为that day.

2.if/whether; I; was.本题考查的是一般疑问句的直接引语变间接引语,时态由一般将来时变为过去将来时;第二人称的you 要和主句中的宾语一致,为I。

3.he; had; bought.根据直接引语变间接引语时态的变化规律,得知:间接引语中应用过去完成时。

4.be ; spoken.根据含有情态动词的主动句变被动句的变化规则。答案为:be; spoken.

5.was; eaten.根据变被动语态的时态结构公式,很明显答案为:was; eaten.

6.was;seen;helping;by;Miss;King.方法同5题。当主动句中的主语做被动句的宾语时,其前用介词by。

7.are;some;women;dresses.本题考查单数句子变复数句子时,谓语动词,名词,代词,及不定冠词都要做相应的变化。不定冠词a,/an通常变为some/any. some用在肯定句中,而any用在否定句中。带有性别的名词修饰名词时同时变复数形式。

8.It’s; an; box.在做由复数句子变单数句子特别要注意的是:some/any是变成a;还是an,关键看名词的第一个音素是辅音还是元音。a用在辅音音素前;而an用在元音音素前。

9.Both;and;have.根据句意我们知道本题表示的两者都...显然用both...and...。谓语动词用复数形式。

10.drew; worse. 根据题意“我的表弟不如迈克画的好”这意味着“他比迈克画的差”考查比较级的用法。

11.to; have.本题考查句型间的相互转换。It’s time for +名词(短语)=It’s time to +动词原形。

12.How; wide.本题考查对宽度提问。答案为:How; wide.

13.本题考查对“for +时间段”的提问。故答案为:How; long.

14.此题考查对距离的提问。其正确答案为:How; far.

15.考查对频度副词“often”的提问。答案为:How; often.

  评论这张
 
阅读(3765)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017