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被动语态的注意事项(高二英语)  

2010-06-30 15:27:57|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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被动语态的注意事项(高二英语)

【考点导航】

1. The wet weather will continue tomorrow, when a cold front _______ to arrive. (2008全国I)

A. is expected          B. is expecting      C. expects         D. will be expected

2. I feel greatly honored _______ into their society. (2008北京)

A. to welcome          B. welcoming     C. to be welcomed    D. welcomed

答案与解析:1. A。句意为:明天将会持续潮湿的天气,届时冷锋将会来临。在when引导的时间状语从句中常用一般时表将来时。expect与a cold front之间是动宾关系,所以用被动语态。2. C。根据句意可知,能受到他们社团的欢迎,我感到非常荣幸。表示“受到……的欢迎”应用不定式的被动语态形式。

【重点归纳】

被动语态由“助动词be + 过去分词”构成,时态通过be体现出来。

一、被动语态的使用情况

1. 不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者(不带由by引起的短语)。如:

I haven’t been told about the traffic accident.

2. 动作的承受者是谈话的中心(可带由by引起的短语)。如:

The news has been given out by BBC.

3. 不愿说出动作的执行者是谁。如:

It’s generally considered that teaching is as much an art as it is a science.

二、被动语态的特殊结构形式

1. 带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词 + be + 过去分词。如:

This kind of robot can be used to do some housework.

2. 感官动词或某些使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带to,但变为被动语态时须加上to。如:

The little boy was made to do a difficult job.

He was seen to enter the classroom.

3. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。如:

The child was taken care of by his grandmother.

4. 完成进行时和将来进行时都不存在被动语态,如确需使用被动形式则用完成时态或一般时态代替。如:

We have been talking about the matter for an hour.

→The matter has been talked about for an hour.

We will be talking about the matter this evening.

→The matter will be talked about this evening.

三、非谓语动词的被动语态

1. 当不定式动词与其逻辑主语之间是动宾关系时,不定式要用被动语态形式。其构成形式为to be done或to have been done。如:

It was going to be tested out by Larry’s wife, Claire.

注意:当不定式作表语,主语又是不定式的动作的承受者时,通常用主动形式表示被动。如:

The math problem is rather difficult to work out.

2. 当动词-ing 形式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者时,就要用动词-ing形式的被动语态being done。动词-ing形式的完成式的被动语态是having been done,强调这一被动动作发生在谓语动词动作之前。如:

No one is fond of being made fun of in public.

My cousin was very unhappy for not having been invited to the party.

四、主动形式表示被动意义

动词的主动形式表示被动意义主要有以下几种情况:

1. 系动词feel, sound, taste, keep, remain, stay, prove等常以主动形式表示被动意义。如:

The stores in this area stay open later at weekends than at weekdays.

Your hand feels so cold. Why not put on your overcoat?

2. 有些不及物动词或短语如appear, disappear, last, come true, happen, take place, break out, come about, run out, come out等以主动形式表示被动意义。如:

The American Civil War broke out in 1861 and lasted four years.

The novel became a best-seller soon after it came out in 1999.

3. 有些动词与副词well, easily, perfectly, smoothly等连用,以主动形式表示被动意义,表示主语特征或属性。常见的这类动词有catch, clean, drive, sell, read, write, wash等。如:

This pen writes smoothly.

Cellphones of this new type do not sell well in the capital city.

4. 动词need, want, require后接动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。如:

The flowers need / want / require watering three times a week.

5. 形容词worth后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义,但不能跟动词不定式;而worthy后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。如:

The picture-book is well worth reading. = The picture-book is worthy to be read.

6. 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,又和句中另一名词或代词构成主谓关系,不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。如:

I have a lot of things to do this afternoon.

比较:I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted?

7. 在某些“形容词 + 不定式”作表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时,这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词有nice,easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting等。如:

This problem is difficult to work out.

8. 在too … to … 结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。如:

This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.

9. 在there be …句型中,当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时,不定式用主动式作定语,重点在人,用被动形式作定语,重点在物。如:

There is no time to lose (to be lost).

10. 在be to do结构中的一些不定式通常应用主动表主动,被动表被动。然而,下列动词rent, blame, let等仍用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。如:

Who is to blame for starting the fire?

五、被动形式表示主动意义

有些动词形式上是被动的,但含义上却是主动的,主要有以下两种情况:

1. 如果谓语部分是“及物动词 + 反身代词”时,其被动语态多表示主动的意义。常见的这类动词有dress, seat, lose等。如:

He was dressed in a dark blue suit when I saw him for the first time.

→ He dressed himself in a dark blue suit when I saw him for the first time.

2. 英语里还有许多固定搭配,其形式上是被动的,却表示主动含义。常见的这类短语有:be gone“不见了”,be engaged to sb“和……订婚”,be married to sb“和……结婚”,be concerned about“关心”等。如:

The boss should have been concerned more about the health of the workers.

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