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定语和定语从句  

2012-09-16 11:43:15|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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   定语和定语从句

 【观察】观察下列句子中定语的用法,然后加以总结。

  1. A good poet had a better chance of getting a good job.

  2. She walked towards us carrying something long and thin.

  3. As you walk past the ancient wooden and stone houses, you feel you are walking back into the past.

  4. A few years ago a well-known English author was signing copies of his books in a Sydney bookshop.

  5. She was going to give two fifteen-minute lessons from space.

  6. I still remember what I ate: a tuna fish and cheese sandwich.

  7. The author thought that Emma Chissit was the woman’s name.

  8. As a result, it has become a window on the past, and can give researchers lots of useful information.

  9. In 1987, Jordan became only the second player to score more than 3,000 points in a season. 

10. We had seen the smiling faces of the astronauts waving to the world as they stepped into the shuttle.

 11. The next morning a notice was put up on the door of the workhouse, offering a reward to anybody who would employ Oliver Twist. 

12. Without the development of the printing press, the Renaissance may never have happened.

13. The things inside sandwiches and baked potatoes are also various kinds of mashed food…
14. Most of them were prisoners sent there to work.

15. The room in which the boys were fed was a large stone hall, with a large pot at one end.

16. The old town is on the side of a mountain and opposite it is the 5,500 metre Yulong Xueshan Mountain, its peak covered with snow.

17. It is the rhythm of rap music, which became popular in the US in the 1980s.

18. The English Romantic poets, as they are now known, were very interested in what was happening in the rest of the continent.

【总结】

定语是用来修饰名词或代词的成分。定语的构成及用法如下:

一、词或短语作定语:

●形容词常作前置定语(如例句1)。

形容词修饰复合代词时作后置定语 (如例句2)。

多个形容词作定语的词序:表示说话人评价的形容词→表示大小、长短、高低、新旧的形容词→表示颜色的形容词→表示国别、来源、材料的形容词→表示目的或用途的形容词(如例句3)。

●代词作前置定语(如例句4)。

●数词作前置定语(如例句5)。

●名词或名词所有格作前置定语(如例句6-7)。

●介词短语作后置定语(如例句8)。

注意:某些副词可作后置定语。

二、非谓语动词作定语:

●动词不定式短语作后置定语,通常用主动形式表示被动意义(如例句9)。

●动词-ing形式(短语)。单个的分词作前置定语,分词短语作后置定语,表主动、表进行(如例句10-11)。动名词作前置定语,表明中心词的用途(如例句12)。

●动词-ed形式(短语)。单个的分词作前置定语,分词短语作后置定语,表被动、表完成(如例句13-14)。

注意:某些单个的过去分词作后置定语。

【拓展】with复合宾语结构(如例句15)和独立主格结构(如例句16)作定语。

三、定语从句

定语从句放在所修饰的词之后,分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。

●非限定性定语从句用which不用that引导
(如例句17)。

●as在限定性定语从句中用来指人或物,常组成such / the same / as…as 结构,as指代先行词,在从句中作宾语或主语。

●which和as在非限定性定语从句中可以指代主句或主句中的一部分(如例句18)。

【难点点拨】which和as引导非限定性定语从句的区别:

位置:as引导非限定性定语从句可放在句首、句末,而which所引导的从句只可以放在句末。

意义:as用来引导定语从句常译成“正
如……一样”;而which引导定语从句常译成“这一点”。

【小试牛刀】

一、完成句子(每空一词)。

  1. 你还有什么话要说吗?

   Do you have                    ?

  2. 黄河是中国的第二大河。 

   The Yellow River is                river in China. 

  3. 那个五岁的男孩说话很自信,给我留下了很深的印象。

   The      boy spoke confidently,      impressed me most.

  4. 汤姆昨天买的铅笔盒里有两支钢笔。

   There are      pens in                     yesterday.

  5. 要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。

   Without      instruction, I would not have made           progress.

  6. 上海是座美丽的城市,他决定再呆两天。

   Shanghai was a      city, so he decided to stay for           days.

  7. 在场的老师们对他独特的思维方式大加赞赏。

   The           greatly praised           ways of thinking. 

  8. 靠自己的劳动挣来的面包是最香的。

                              is so sweet as that                         .

  9. 架子上有许多书,其中5本是我的。

   There are      books on the shelf,                         .

10. 迟延应由他负责,这个事实是改变不了的。

       Nothing can alter the fact that he is                for the delay.

11. 桌子上有个铅笔盒,里面有一支钢笔、两支铅笔和一把尺子。

       A pencil box is on the desk,           there is a pen, two pencils and a ruler.

12. 我喜欢那个人和我坦率、诚恳的谈话。

       I liked the     ,      manner in which the man talked to me. 

13. 这幅画是个传家宝,是世世代代传下来的。

   The painting was a valuable family

possession,                          from generation to generation.

14. 我们已经试过三遍了,还必须再试一次吗?

       We’ve tried          . Must we try               ?

15. 那些对世界作出巨大贡献的人们应该受到极大的尊重。

                      have made great contributions to the world should be greatly respected.

二、用所给动词的正确形式填空。

  1. Hangzhou,      (know) for the West Lake, has changed greatly.

  2. They failed in their attempt      (reach) there before five o’clock.

  3. The bird      (sing) in the tree is very beautiful.

  4. The picture      (hang) on the wall is painted by my son.

  5. He is the first one      (come) this morning.

  6. Fill the blanks with the words      (give).

  7. This is one of the questions      (discuss) at the meeting now.

  8. The girl      (dress) in red over there is Mary’s sister.  

三、单项选择。

  1.      we all know, competition and cooperation is a hot topic in modern society.

     A. Which              B. As            

       C. It                     D. That

  2. Lessons      easily were soon forgotten. 

     A. to learn            B. learn        

       C. learned            D. learning

  3. Are you going to attend the party      tonight?

       A. to be held        B. being held

       C. held             D. to hold

  4. I bought a      table yesterday while shopping.

     A. small round wooden             

       B. small wooden round

     C. round wooden small             

       D. round small wooden

  5. Would you please give me a piece of paper     ?

     A. to write            B. to write on      

       C. to write with     D. to be written

  6. He was often rude to his father,     , of course, made him lose his temper.

     A. which        B. that          

       C. how             D. it

  7. Hearing the      news, they shouted in      voices.

     A. exciting; exciting      B. excited; excited

     C. excited; exciting      D. exciting; excited

四、连词成句。

  1. others / learn / doesn’t / can’t / want / much / to / from / a / achieve / man / who

                                                                  

  2. the / park / it / from / going / to / hard / yesterday / which / prevented / rained / me

                                                                       

  3. before / are / one / the / two / other / to / leading / beach / the / to / roads / us / the / there / park

                                                                  

  4. come / visit / our / afternoon / important / to / will / school / tomorrow / somebody

                                                                  

  5. young / professor / intelligent / a / she / met / tall / whom / in / knew / American / my / sister /
college

                                                                  

  6. time / I / I / began / to / to / love / came / beautiful / this / city / Shanghai /    the / first

                                                                  

  7. Tom’s / Marx / happy / was / receive / money / and / thanked / him / his / important / to / help /
for
                                                                  

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