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状语和状语从句  

2012-09-20 11:23:43|  分类: 英语题型 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  状语和状语从句

 【观察】观察下列句子中状语的用法,然后加以总结。

  1. Sadly, she never came back to her classroom again…

  2. I shall never forget watching the sunrise over the sea—it was unforgettable!

  3. Millions of people watched that first moon landing on television, their hearts in their mouths, aware of how difficult and dangerous an adventure it was…

  4. For the first time, they put people, not religion, at the centre of the universe.

  5. A professor at the Academy has proposed that a fund be established to raise money.

  6. Covering about 14 million square kilometres around the South Pole, it is the fifth largest continent in the world.

  7. Some areas are almost completely covered in weeds, causing serious damage.

  8. Painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the years 1503-1506, the Mona Lisa is a mysterious masterpiece.

  9. Frightened by his own courage, he said, “Please sir, I want some more.”

10. With annual rainfall close to zero, Antarctica is technically a desert.

11. By the time he retired, Wilt held many NBA records…

12. Perhaps correctness doesn’t matter—as long as speakers can understand each other…

13. I’ve decided to write them down so that one day, years from now, when I reread them, the memories will come back.

14. However different we may appear to be at first, we are all the same, all equal.

【总结】

状语是用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子的成分。一般表示时间、地点、方式、程度、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、伴随情况等意义。

●副词或副词短语作状语

修饰动词、形容词、其他副词以及全句等
(如例句1)。

注意:有些副词,如always, often, usually, never, ever等作状语,放在实意动词之前,助动词、be动词或情态动词之后(如例句2)。

●形容词或形容词短语作状语

有些形容词或形容词短语作状语,通常表示原因、时间、结果或伴随情况 (如例句3)。

有些不及物动词后面可以跟一个形容词或形容词短语,说明动作发生时主语所处的状态。

●介词短语作状语

表示时间、地点、原因、条件、程度、目的、让步、伴随情况、方式等意义(如例句4)。

●动词不定式短语作状语

与句子的主语之间是主动关系,表示目的
(如例句5)、原因、结果等。

●动词-ing形式(短语)作状语

与句子的主语之间是主动关系,常表示伴随、条件、时间、让步、方式等(如例句6)。如果放在句末表示自然而然的结果(如例句7)。

●动词-ed形式(短语)作状语

与句子主语之间是被动关系。常表示伴随、条件、时间、让步、方式或结果等(如例句8)。

注意:有些动词-ed形容词作状语时不表示被动,而说明主语的特征或状态(如例句9)。

【特别提醒】非谓语动词作状语,其逻辑主语与句子的主语一致。

●with复合结构作状语

表示原因、时间、条件、伴随或方式等(如例句10)。

●独立主格结构作状语

常表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随情况(如例句3)。

●状语从句

状语从句分为时间、地点、方式、原因、条件、让步、结果、目的、比较等(如例句11-14)。

【高考链接】

  1. To be great, you must be smart, confident, and,    , honest.                (2011安徽)

   A. therefore          B. above all                 C. however          D. after all

  2. Sit down, Emma. You will only make yourself more tired,     on your feet.   (2011 北京)

     A. to keep            B. keeping                   C. having kept      D. to have kept

  3. If they win the final tonight, the team are going to tour around the city     by their enthusiastic supporters.                                                      (2011 浙江)

     A. being cheered  B. be cheered              C. to be cheered   D. were cheered

【小试牛刀】

一、用所给词的正确形式填空。

  1. It rained heavily,       (cause) severe flood in that country.

  2.       (improve) his English, he works much harder.

  3.       (see) the cat, the mouse ran away quickly.

  4. Much       (discourage), she came back home.

  5. With him       (sit) next to her, she felt safe.

  6.       (compare) with ours, their house is a palace.

  7. I reached the station only       (find) my train had already left.

  8.       (tell) you the truth, I hate to do it.

  9. I would miss the train, with no one       (wake) me up.

10. I promise you that I will do everything I can       (help) her.

二、单项选择。

  1. We were sitting by the window,       about what happened yesterday.

     A. talking              B. talked                     C. to talk              D. talk

  2.       on the North American continent, Canada is the second largest country in the world.

       A. Locating B. Located                C. Locate             D. To locate 

  3.       at the results of the experiment, he almost decided to give up.

     A. Disappointing                               B. To be disappointed

     C. Disappointed                               D. Having disappointed

  4. She was so angry that she threw her new doll on the floor,       it into pieces.

     A. breaking         B. to break                  C. broke                 D. having broken

  5.       we work with joint efforts, we will be able to solve this technical problem.

     A. Although          B. Even if                    C. In order that     D. So long as

  6. I am looking forward to a holiday without homework       I can relax and have some time for my hobbies.

     A. even if              B. unless               C. though             D. so that

  7. The task       ahead of time, we all felt relaxed.

     A. finishing            B. finished                   C. had finished      D. were finished

  8.       the storm, the ship reached its destination on time.

     A. But for               B. In case of         C. In spite of        D. Except for

  9. With many of his works       out, he became more and more famous.

       A. coming             B. to come                  C. come           D. having come

10. The workers worked 14 hours a day,        products three times as they did last month.

       A. to produce            B. thus producing

       C. having produced     D. thus produced 

三、根据汉语提示补全句子(每空一词)。

  1. 我已经足够大了,有权去做我喜欢做的事。

   I’m                      have the freedom to do as I like.

  2. 不论谁犯法都要受到惩处。

                              , he should be punished.

  3. 一走进教室,我就看见他在专心读书。

                     the classroom, I found him reading a book attentively.

  4. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。

   There        nothing else to do, we went home.

  5. 无论你何时来我们都欢迎。

   You are always welcome                      you come.

  6. 因为贫穷,他不能送儿子上学。

                 poverty, he couldn’t send his son to college.

  7. 游客们回到宾馆,又累又困。

   The tourists returned to the hotel,                     .

  8. 怀特先生每天早晨锻炼半个小时以保持健康。

   Mr. White keeps fit               out for half an hour every morning.

四、用适当的介词、连词及所给词的正确形式填空。

God’s coffee

A group of old classmates, highly established in their careers, got together 1.       (visit) their old university professor. Conversation soon turned into complaints about stress in work and life.

2.       (offer) his guests coffee, the professor went to the kitchen and returned with a large pot of coffee and all kinds of cups—porcelain, plastic, glass, crystal, some plain-looking, some expensive, some delicate — 3.       (tell) them to help themselves to the coffee.

4.       all the students had a cup of coffee in hand, the professor said, “5.       you noticed, all the nice-looking expensive cups were taken up, 6.       (leave) behind the plain and cheap ones. 7.       it is normal for you to want only the best for yourselves, that is the source of your problems and stress. Be assured that the cup itself adds no quality to the coffee. In most cases it is just more expensive and in some cases it even hides what we drink. What all of you really wanted was coffee, not the cup, but you 8.       (conscious) went for the best cups. And then you began eyeing each other’s cups. Now consider this: Life is the coffee; the jobs, money and positions in society are the cups. They are just tools to hold and contain life, and the type of cup we have does not mean, nor change the quality of life we live. Sometimes,

9.       concentrating only on the cup, we fail to enjoy the coffee God has provided for us. God brews (酿造) the coffee, not the cups. Enjoy your coffee!”

The happiest people don’t have the best of everything. They just make the best of everything.

Live simply. Love generously. Care deeply. Speak kindly. Leave the rest to God.

参考答案:

【高考链接】

1-3 BBC

【小试牛刀】

一、1. causing         2. To improve      3. Having seen      4. discouraged     5. sitting       

       6. Compared       7. to find          8. To tell               9. to wake           10. to help

二、1-5 ABCAD          6-10 DBCAB

三、1. old enough to       2. Whoever breaks the law 3. On entering   4. being 

       5. no matter when 6. Because of              7. tired and sleepy    8. by working

四、1. to visit             2. To offer            3. telling         4. When

       5. If                     6. leaving              7. While         8. consciously       9. by

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